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Acepromazine maleate
Last updated: 19/05/2021
(Also known as: acetylpromazine maleate; ACP; ACE)

Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
   
Human health
High alert:
Neurotoxicant
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A veterinary treatment used as a premedication for quietening and calming animals. It also has antihistamine effects.
Availability status
-
Introduction & key dates
1950's, first use in humans; late 1960's veterinary applications
Examples of species treated
Horses, Dogs, Cats, Elephants, Deer
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₂₃H₂₆N₂O₅S
Canonical SMILES
CC(=O)C1=CC2=C(C=C1)SC3=CC=CC=C3N2CCCN(C)C.C(=CC(=O)O)C(=O)O
Isomeric SMILES
CC(=O)C1=CC2=C(C=C1)SC3=CC=CC=C3N2CCCN(C)C.C(=C/C(=O)O)\C(=O)O
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
FQRHOOHLUYHMGG-WLHGVMLRSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C19H22N2OS.C4H4O4/c1-14(22)15-9-10-19-17(13-15)21(12-6-11-20(2)3)16-7-4-5-8-18(16)23-19;5-3(6)1-2-4(7)8/h4-5,7-10,13H,6,11-12H2,1-3H3;1-2H,(H,5,6)(H,7,8)/b;2-1+
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Veterinary substance type
Tranquiliser, Antihistamine
Substance groups
Phenothiazine neuroleptic
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Has a depressant effect on the central nervous system and therefore causes sedation. Dopamine antagonist.
Molecular targets
[D(2) dopamine receptor, antagonist], [D(1A) dopamine receptor, antagonist], [5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor, antagonist], [5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptor, antagonist], [Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor, antagonist], [Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor, antagonist]
CAS RN
3598-37-6
EC number
222-748-9
CIPAC number
-
US EPA chemical code
-
PubChem CID
-
ATCvet Code
QN05AA04
Therapeutic Class
Nervous system: Antipsychotics
Controlled Drug?
No
Regulation 37/2010 MRL Classification
No data
Molecular mass
442.50
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
(E)-but-2-enedioic acid;1-[10-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]phenothiazin-2-yl]ethanone
CAS name
10-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)phenothiazine-2-yl methyl hydrogen maleate
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Physical state
Yellow, crystalline powder
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Authorisation Route
UK Legal Class
Example products using this active
ACP (injections/Tablets) Novartis Animal Health UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Large animal immobilion solution for injection Novartis Animal Health UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Sedaline 35 mg/ml Oral Gel Vetoquinol UK Ltd UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Oralject Sedazine Acepromazine (1.20% w/v) Oral Paste Tranquilliser for Horses Vetsearch International (UK) Ltd UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as a solution for injection or in tablet form
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
37000
V4 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
4 = Verified data
High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
333000
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Chloroform
-
77000
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Methanol
-
Melting point (°C)
135
V4 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
4 = Verified data
-
Boiling point (°C)
497
V4 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
4 = Verified data
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
254.4
V4 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
4 = Verified data
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
- - -
Log P
- - -
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
- - -
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
- - -
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Refractive Index
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
- - -
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
Note
-
Manure DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
- - -
Koc
-
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
- - -
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
- - -
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Known soil and groundwater metabolites

None

Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
2-(1-hydroxyethyl)promazine sulfoxide
Note: C19H24N2O2S; Mwt = 344.47
- Animal - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
400
V4 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
400
V4 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
- - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Subcutaneous LD₅₀ = 65 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mouse
-
Intravenous LD₅₀ = 95 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
Metabolised by liver, excreted in urine
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found
Yes, known to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found
Yes, known to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
May affect heart and respiratory rate leading to hypotension
Ingestion may cause gastrointestinal disturbances
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
When heated to decomposition it emits highly toxic fumes of NOx and SOx
CLP classification 2013
Health: H317
WHO Classification
None - not a ppp
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
acepromazine maleate
French
maléate d'acépromazine
German
-
Danish
-
Italian
-
Spanish
maleato de acepromazina
Greek
-
Polish
-
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 19/05/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242