Top Environmental Fate Ecotoxicology Human Health Translations
Home
A to Z
Search
Support information
Edit history
Purchasing and licensing
Enrofloxacin (Ref: BAY VP 2674)
Last updated: 14/04/2021
(Also known as: BRN 5307824)

GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A broad-spectrum bactericidal antibiotic used to treat domesticated animals for a variety of infections including E.coli., Enterobacter, Campylobacter, Shigella and Salmonella
Availability status
-
Introduction & key dates
-
Examples of species treated
Domestic animals including: Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Horses. May also be used on Reptiles, Poultry and Cattle.
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₁₉H₂₂FN₃O₃
Canonical SMILES
CCN1CCN(CC1)C2=C(C=C3C(=C2)N(C=C(C3=O)C(=O)O)C4CC4)F
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
SPFYMRJSYKOXGV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C19H22FN3O3/c1-2-21-5-7-22(8-6-21)17-10-16-13(9-15(17)20)18(24)14(19(25)26)11-23(16)12-3-4-12/h9-12H,2-8H2,1H3,(H,25,26)
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
enrofloxacin -
General status
Veterinary substance type
Antibiotic, Chemotherapeutic agent, Medicinal drug, Bactericide
Substance groups
Fluoroquinolone
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Not clear but believed to act by inhibiting bacterial DNA gyrase
Molecular targets
[DNA gyrase subunit A, antagonist], [DNA topoisomerase 2-alpha, antagonist]
CAS RN
93106-60-6
EC number
-
CIPAC number
-
US EPA chemical code
-
PubChem CID
-
ATCvet Code
QJ01MA90
Therapeutic Class
Antiinfectants for systemic use: Antibacterials for systemic use
Controlled Drug?
No
Regulation 37/2010 MRL Classification
Allowed substance (Table 1: All food producing species)
Molecular mass
359.4
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
1,4-dihydro-1-cyclopropyl-7-(4-ethyl-1-piperazinyl)-6-fluoro-4-oxo-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid
CAS name
1-cyclopropyl-7-(4-ethyl-1-piperazinyl)-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Physical state
Pale yellow crystalline powder
Related substances & organisms
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Authorisation Route
UK Legal Class
Example products using this active
Baytril 10% Oral Solution Bayer plc UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Enrocare 100mg/ml Solution for Injection for Cattle and Pigs LeVet Pharma B.V. EU Mutually recognised procedure Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Enrox Flavour 15mg Tablets for Dogs & Cats KrKa Dd EU Mutually recognised procedure Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Xeden 15mg Tablets for Cats Sogeval S.A. EU Mutually recognised procedure Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Formulation and application details
Available in a variety of forumulations including solution for injection, powders and tablets
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
130000
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
220
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
5.01 X 1004 Calculated -
Log P
4.7
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
High
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
- - -
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
6.21
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
2.53 X 10-08
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
3.2 X 10-08
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Non-volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
Max @ 270+1nm and 314+2nm
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Refractive Index
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
123
A4 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
4 = Verified data
Persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
297
A4 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
4 = Verified data
Persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
Note
DT₅₀ range 99-149 days, DT₉₀ range 330-495 days; Industry data DT₅₀ 359-696 days (R3)
Manure DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Non-mobile
Koc
392600
Notes and range
Koc range 16506-768740 mL g⁻¹
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
-3.94 Calculated Low leachability
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
- - -
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
ciprofloxacin (Ref: BRN 3568352) - Animal (urinary and faecal) - -
enrofloxacin amide - Animal (urinary and faecal) - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 5000
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 10
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Lepomis macrochirus
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
~ 1
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Pimephales promelas 7 day
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 100
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna
Low
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
~ 1.0
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna 48hr
Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.084
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Lemna gibba
Moderate
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
> 2.6
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 5000
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
2000
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 35.47
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat 4 hr
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Intravenous LD₅₀ = 200 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mouse
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
Eliminated by both renal and hepatic metabolism
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
May cause gastrointestinal disturbances
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Light sensitive
CLP classification 2013
-
WHO Classification
None - not a ppp
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
enrofloxacin
French
enrofloxacine
German
-
Danish
-
Italian
-
Spanish
enrofloxacino
Greek
-
Polish
-
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 14/04/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242