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Olaquindox
Last updated: 30/06/2022
(Also known as: olachindox)

Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
Moderate alert:
GUS: Transition state; Drainflow: Moderately mobile
Ecotoxicity
Low alert:
Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: Low
Warning:
Significant data are missing
Human health
Moderate alert:
Mammals acute toxicity: Moderate
Warning:
Significant data are missing
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
Substance with antimicrobial properties and used as a growth promotor mainly for pigs
Availability status
-
Introduction & key dates
1976, first approval
Examples of species treated
Pigs, Cattle
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₁₂H₁₃N₃O₄
Canonical SMILES
CC1=C([N+](=O)C2=CC=CC=C2N1[O-])C(=O)NCCO
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
TURHTASYUMWZCC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C12H13N3O4/c1-8-11(12(17)13-6-7-16)15(19)10-5-3-2-4-9(10)14(8)18/h2-5,16H,6-7H2,1H3,(H,13,17)
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
olaquindox -
General status
Veterinary substance type
Antibiotic, Growth promoter, Performance enhancer, Feed additive
Substance groups
Quinolone
Minimum active substance purity
98%
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Uncertain but believed to act by suppressing gut bacterial growth
Molecular targets
-
CAS RN
23696-28-8
EC number
245-832-7
CIPAC number
-
US EPA chemical code
-
PubChem CID
-
ATCvet Code
QJ01MQ01
Therapeutic Class
Antiinfectants for systemic use: Antibacterials for systemic use
Controlled Drug?
No
Regulation 37/2010 MRL Classification
No data
Molecular mass
263.25
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methyl-4-oxido-1-oxoquinoxalin-1-ium-2-carboxamide
CAS name
N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methyl-2-quinoxalinecarboxamide 1,4-dioxide
Other status information
Banned in EU as growth promotor; Evidence of use in third world countries; Not approved as a feed additive in EU
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Physical state
Pale yellow crystals
Related substances & organisms
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Authorisation Route
UK Legal Class
Example products using this active
None identified None identified No UK authorisation for use with animals Not applicable
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as a feed pre-mix
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
202
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
7.41 X 10-03 Calculated -
Log P
-2.13
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
1.532
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
13.75
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
- - -
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Refractive Index
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
7.3
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
7.3
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
Note
DT₅₀ range 5.8-8.8 days
Manure DT₅₀ (days)
7.35
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Soil-manure slurry
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
1.21
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Moderately mobile
Koc
88
Notes and range
Literature data Kd range 0.69-1.67 mL g⁻¹, Koc range 46-116 mL g⁻¹, soils=4
Freundlich
Kf
1.04
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Moderately mobile
Kfoc
75.6
1/n
1.35
Notes and range
Literature data Kf range 0.84-1.20 mL g⁻¹, Kfoc range 56.0-95.5 mL g⁻¹, 1/n range 1.25-1.49, Soils=4
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
1.83 Calculated Transition state
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
- - -
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Known soil and groundwater metabolites

None

Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
3-methylquinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid MQCA Animal - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1704
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 1000
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna LOEC
Low
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
40
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Selenastrum capricornutum
Low
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1704
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
- - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 1.75
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat 4 hr
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
Rapidly absorbed, metabolised and mostly excreted in the urine with lesser amounts in faeces and bile
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E2 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
2 = Mixed/ambiguous results
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
No data found No data found No data found
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Genotoxic
A rodent tumorigen
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Emits toxic vapors of NOx when heated to decomposition
CLP classification 2013
-
WHO Classification
NL (Not listed)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
olaquindox
French
-
German
-
Danish
-
Italian
-
Spanish
-
Greek
-
Polish
-
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 30/06/2022
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242