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Procaine hydrochoride
Last updated: 26/04/2021
(Also known as: novacaine; procaine HCl; aminocaine; chlorocaine)

Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
 
Ecotoxicity
Moderate alert:
Fish acute ecotoxicity: Moderate
Warning:
Significant data are missing
Human health
High alert:
Reproduction/development effects; Neurotoxicant
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A drug used as a local anaesthetic for minor surgical procedures on a variety of animals
Availability status
-
Introduction & key dates
1905, first synthesised
Examples of species treated
Cattle, Sheep, Goats, Horses, Pigs, Dogs, Cats
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₁₃H₃₀N₂O₂Cl
Canonical SMILES
CCN(CC)CCOC(=O)C1=CC=C(C=C1)N.Cl
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
HCBIBCJNVBAKAB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C13H20N2O2.ClH/c1-3-15(4-2)9-10-17-13(16)11-5-7-12(14)8-6-11;/h5-8H,3-4,9-10,14H2,1-2H3;1H
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
Procaine -
General status
Veterinary substance type
Anesthetic, Medicinal drug
Substance groups
Aminobenzoate
Minimum active substance purity
99&
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Acts as a sodium channel blocker
Molecular targets
[Sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha, antagonist], [Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit 3A, antagonist], [5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor, antagonist], [Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter, antagonist], [Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-2, antagonist]
CAS RN
51-05-8
EC number
200-077-2
CIPAC number
-
US EPA chemical code
-
PubChem CID
-
ATCvet Code
QN01BA52
Therapeutic Class
Nervous system: Anaesthetic
Controlled Drug?
No
Regulation 37/2010 MRL Classification
Allowed susbstance (Table 1: All food producing species)
Molecular mass
272.77
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
2-(diethylamino)ethyl 4-aminobenzoate hydrochloride
CAS name
2-(diethylamino) ethyl p-aminobenzoate monohydrochloride
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Physical state
White, hygroscopic crystalline powder
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Authorisation Route
UK Legal Class
Example products using this active
Adrenacaine Solution for Injection for Cattle Norbook Labs EU Mutually recognised procedure Prescription only medicine to be authorised by suitably qualified person (POM-VPS)
Depocillin 300 mg/ml Suspension for Injection Intervet International BV UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Multiject IMM Intramammary Suspension Norbook Labs UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Penacare 300 mg/ml Suspension for Injection Norbook Labs UK National authorisation (IC) Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as a solution for subcutaneous injection
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
68100
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
155
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
195
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
195
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
1.45 X 10-01 Calculated -
Log P
-0.84
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
- - -
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
8.05
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
1.03 X 10-04
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
Max @ 221nm & 290nm for acid
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Refractive Index
1.5611
CA3 CA = Medical and toxicological databases and information systems e.g. TOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
- - -
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
Note
-
Manure DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
- - -
Koc
-
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
- - -
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
- - -
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Known soil and groundwater metabolites

None

Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
para-aminobenzoic acid
Note: More toxic than parent
PABA Human (Plasma, hydrolysis) - -
diethylaminoethanol
Note: More toxic than parent
- Human (Plasma, hydrolysis) - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
200
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
10
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Ptychocheilus spp. 24 hour
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
200
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
- - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Subcutaneous LD₅₀ = 597 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Intravenous LD₅₀ = 38 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
Majority is metabolised and the metabolised are rapidly (in minutes) excreted mostly in the urine
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
Yes, known to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
Yes, known to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
?Possibly, status not identified
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
May cause cardiac and vasodilation effects
May cause serious allergic reactions
Harmful if swallowed
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of nitroxides
IMDG Transport Code is usually 6.1
CLP classification 2013
-
WHO Classification
None - not a ppp
UN Number
2811
Waste disposal & packaging
Hygroscopic in air
Packaging Group III (minor danger)
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
procaine hydrochoride
French
-
German
-
Danish
-
Italian
-
Spanish
-
Greek
-
Polish
-
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 26/04/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242