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Virginiamycin
Last updated: 09/04/2021
(Also known as: Antibiotic 899; staphylomycin; staphylomycine)

Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
   
Human health
Low alert
Warning:
Significant data are missing
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
Drug used to accelerate the growth of the animals and to prevent and treat infections particularly used for the treatment of infections due to sensitive organisms, particularly Gram-positive cocci
Availability status
-
Introduction & key dates
-
Examples of species treated
Pigs, Cattle, Poultry for meat
Chemical structure
Isomerism
Isomeric mixture
Chemical formula
C₇₁H₈₄N₁₀O₁₇
Canonical SMILES
CCC1C(=O)N2CCCC2C(=O)N(C(C(=O)N3CCC(=O)CC3C(=O)NC(C(=O)OC(C(C(=O)N1)NC(=O)C4=C(C=CC=N4)O)C)C5=CC=CC=C5)CC6=CC=CC=C6)C.CC1C=CC(=O)NCC=CC(=CC(CC(=O)CC2=NC(=CO2)C(=O)N3CCC=C3C(=O)OC1C(C)C)O)C
Isomeric SMILES
CC[C@@H]1C(=O)N2CCC[C@H]2C(=O)N([C@H](C(=O)N3CCC(=O)C[C@H]3C(=O)N[C@H](C(=O)O[C@@H]([C@@H](C(=O)N1)NC(=O)C4=C(C=CC=N4)O)C)C5=CC=CC=C5)CC6=CC=CC=C6)C.C[C@@H]1/C=C/C(=O)NC/C=C/C(=C/[C@H](CC(=O)CC2=NC(=CO2)C(=O)N3CCC=C3C(=O)O[C@@H]1C(C)C)O)/C
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
MVTQIFVKRXBCHS-SMMNFGSLSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C43H49N7O10.C28H35N3O7/c1-4-29-40(56)49-21-12-17-30(49)41(57)48(3)32(23-26-13-7-5-8-14-26)42(58)50-22-19-28(51)24-31(50)37(53)47-35(27-15-9-6-10-16-27)43(59)60-25(2)34(38(54)45-29)46-39(55)36-33(52)18-11-20-44-36;1-17(2)26-19(4)9-10-24(34)29-11-5-7-18(3)13-20(32)14-21(33)15-25-30-22(16-37-25)27(35)31-12-6-8-23(31)28(36)38-26/h5-11,13-16,18,20,25,29-32,34-35,52H,4,12,17,19,21-24H2,1-3H3,(H,45,54)(H,46,55)(H,47,53);5,7-10,13,16-17,19-20,26,32H,6,11-12,14-15H2,1-4H3,(H,29,34)/b;7-5+,10-9+,18-13+/t25-,29-,30+,31+,32+,34+,35+;19-,20-,26-/m11/s1
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Veterinary substance type
Antibiotic, Antibacterial, Medicinal drug, Antimicrobial, Growth promotor
Substance groups
Streptogramin
Minimum active substance purity
>99%
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Natural
Mode of action
Unknown
Molecular targets
-
CAS RN
11006-76-1
EC number
-
CIPAC number
-
US EPA chemical code
-
PubChem CID
-
ATCvet Code
QD06AX10; QJ01FG90
Therapeutic Class
Dermatologicals: Antibiotics & chemotherapeutics for dematological use; Antiinfectants for systemic use: Antibacterials for systemic use
Controlled Drug?
No
Regulation 37/2010 MRL Classification
No data
Molecular mass
1349.51
Chemical name
virginiamycin M1 + virginiamycin S1
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
-
CAS name
-
Other status information
Banned in EU as growth promotor; Evidence of use in third world countries; Not approved as a feed additive in EU
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Physical state
Amorphous red-orange coloured solid
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Authorisation Route
UK Legal Class
Example products using this active
None identified None identified No UK authorisation for use with animals Not applicable
Formulation and application details
-
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
10
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
115
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
- - -
Log P
- - -
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
- - -
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
- - -
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Refractive Index
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
130
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
Note
General literature states DT₅₀ silty sand range 87-173 days
Manure DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
- - -
Koc
-
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
- - -
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
- - -
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Known metabolites

None

ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
2100
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
2100
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
- - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Intraperitoneal LD₅₀ = 450 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mouse
-
Subcutaneous LD₅₀ > 2500 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mouse
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
No data found
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
No data found No data found No data found
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found No data found
?Possibly, status not identified
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
No data found No data found  
General human health issues
may cause cause gastrointestinal problems
May cause hyposenstivity
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
-
WHO Classification
None - not a ppp
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
virginiamycin
French
virginiamycine
German
-
Danish
-
Italian
-
Spanish
virginiamicina
Greek
-
Polish
-
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 09/04/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242