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Amitraz (Ref: ENT 27967)
Last updated: 13/01/2023
(Also known as: amitraze; amitrazum ; BTS-27419; BAAM; U-36059)

SUMMARY
Amitraz is an amidine acaricide and insecticide. It is volatile, almost insoluble in water and, based on its chemical properties, is only slightly mobile with a low potential for leaching to groundwater. It is not persistent in soil systems, degradation being very rapid and would also not be expected to persistent in surface water under normal conditions. Amitraz has a moderate mammalian toxicity and there is some concern regarding its potential for bioaccumulation. It is considered to be a neurotoxin. Amitraz has a high to moderate toxicity to most terrestrial and aquatic species, the main exception being algae for which amitraz has a low level of toxicity.
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
Moderate alert:
Drainflow: Slightly mobile
Ecotoxicity
High alert:
Fish chronic ecotoxicity: High; Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: High; Daphnia chronic ecotoxicity: High
Human health
High alert:
Neurotoxicant
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
Used to control ticks, mange and lice infestations on pigs and other animals. Also used to control honeybee varroa mite infestations.
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
circa 1972
Examples of species treated
Dogs, Pigs, Cattle, Sheep; Bees
Chemical structure
Isomerism
None
Chemical formula
C₁₉H₂₃N₃
Canonical SMILES
CC1=CC(=C(C=C1)N=CN(C)C=NC2=C(C=C(C=C2)C)C)C
Isomeric SMILES
-
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
QXAITBQSYVNQDR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C19H23N3/c1-14-6-8-18(16(3)10-14)20-12-22(5)13-21-19-9-7-15(2)11-17(19)4/h6-13H,1-5H3/b20-12+,21-13+
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
amitraz -
General status
Veterinary substance type
Antiparasitic
Substance groups
Amidine insecticide; Formamidine insecticide
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Non-systemic having contact and respiratory action. Acts on nervous system. Octopamine receptor agonist.
Molecular targets
-
CAS RN
33089-61-1
EC number
251-375-4
CIPAC number
362
US EPA chemical code
106201
PubChem CID
36324
CLP index number
612-086-00-2
ATCvet Code
QP53AD51 / QP53AD01
Therapeutic Class
Antiparasitic products, insecticides & repellents: Ecoparasiticides, insecticides & repellents
Controlled Drug?
No
Regulation 37/2010 MRL Classification
Allowed substance (Table 1: Bovine, Ovine, Porcine, Caprine, Bees)
Molecular mass
293.41
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
N'-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-N-{[(2,4-dimethylphenyl)imino]methyl}-N-methylmethanimidamide
IUPAC name
N,N'-[(methylimino)dimethylidyne]di-2,4-xylidine
CAS name
N'-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-N-[[(2,4-dimethylphenyl)imino]methyl]-N-methylmethanimidamide
Other status information
PAN Bad Actor Chemical; Cannot be used on horses
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Physical state
Straw coloured crystalline solid
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Authorisation Route
UK Legal Class
Example products using this active
Aludex 50g/l Conc Intervet Ltd UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Promeris Duo Spot on for small dogs Pfizer Ltd EU Centralised procedure Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Apivar 500 mg bee-hive strips for honey bees Veto Pharma EU mutally recognised procedure Authorised veterinary medicine for general sale (AVM - GSL)
Apitraz 500 mg bee-hive strips for honey bees Laboratorios Calier, S.A., Spain EU mutally recognised procedure Authorised veterinary medicine for general sale (AVM - GSL)
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as emulsifiable concentrates or wettable powders for crop use and solutions for livestock topical administration
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
0.1
W4 W = French database provided by ARVALIS-Institut du Végétal
4 = Verified data
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
87
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
Decomposes before boiling
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
3.16 X 1005 Calculated -
Log P
5.5
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
High
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
1.13
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
9.8
DW4 DW = Don Wauchope personal database for Pka data: Wauchope, R. D. and Edwards, J. Dissociation constants for pesticide active ingredients: a database and comparison with predicted values. MS in preparation
4 = Verified data
-
Weak acid
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
0.051
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
1.06
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Moderately volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Refractive Index
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
0.2
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
0.2
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
1
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
Note
Literature DT₅₀ studies range 0.1-2 days
Manure DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
-
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Note
Stable in UV light
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
1
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-persistent
Note
pH sensitive: DT₅₀ 2hrs at pH 5, 1.1 days at pH 9, rapid hydrolysis
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
W3 W = French database provided by ARVALIS-Institut du Végétal
3 = Unverified data of known source
Slightly mobile
Koc
1000
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
0.00 Calculated Low leachability
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
1838
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Threshold for concern
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Known soil metabolites
Metabolite
Major/Minor fraction
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Notes
semiamitraz hydrochloride (Ref: BTS-27271)
Major fraction - -
2,4-dimethylformanilide (Ref: BTS 27919)
Minor fraction - -
2,4-dimethylbenzenamine
Minor fraction - Anaerobic
2,4-dimethylaniline
Minor fraction - Aerobic
N'-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-N-methyl-methanimidamide
Minor fraction - Aerobic
N-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)formamide
Minor fraction - Anaerobic
Known groundwater metabolites

None

Other known metabolites

None

ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
800
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
-
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat 2 year
-
(ppm diet)
50 -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
788
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Colinus virginianus
Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
50
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Apis mellifera
Moderate
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
Moderately harmful at dose 360 g ha⁻¹
AA3 AA = IOBC Database on classification of side effects to beneficial organisms, 2005
3 = Unverified data of known source
Chrysoperla carnea
-
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
Harmful at dose 360 g ha⁻¹
AA3 AA = IOBC Database on classification of side effects to beneficial organisms, 2005
3 = Unverified data of known source
Typhlodromus pyri
-
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.74
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.00353
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Pimephales promelas
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.035
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.002
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna LOEC
High
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
4.7
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Americamysis bahia
Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 8.0
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Chironomus riparius 48hr
Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
12
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Raphidocelis subcapitata
Low
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
800
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
200
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rabbit
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
65.0
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Intraperitoneal LD₅₀ = 800 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.003
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.01
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
/ JMPR 1998
-
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
Occupational exposure may occur through inhalation and dermal contact
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
In mammals urine is the major route of excretion. 55-74% of the dose was excreted after dosing within first 24hrs
P4 P = Other governments and regulators
4 = Verified data
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
?Possibly, status not identified
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found
Yes, known to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Ingestion may cause slow heart beat, low blood pressure, sedation and low body temperature
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Not expected to autoignite; Not highly flammable
CLP classification 2013
Health: H302, H317, H373
Environment: H400, H410
WHO Classification
II (Moderately hazardous)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
amitraz
French
amitraze
German
Amitraz
Danish
amitraz
Italian
amitraz
Spanish
amitraz
Greek
amitraz
Polish
amitraz
Swedish
-
Hungarian
amitraz
Dutch
amitraz

Record last updated: 13/01/2023
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242