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Oxytetracycline
Last updated: 24/05/2024
(Also known as: terramycin; oxytracyl; oxytetrin; terramitsin; oxitetracycline; crop antibiotic; liquamycin)

GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A highly active broad spectrum antibiotic used to control infection animals diseses and bacterial pathogens. Usually used as the hydrochloride salt.
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
-
Examples of veterinary uses
Used to control gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases as well as some skin conditions including Rickettsial infections, Lupus
Examples of species treated
Calves; Non-lactating dairy cattle; Beef; Pigs; Fish; Poultry; Cats; Dogs
Approval status
VMR 2013/2033 approval status (GB/UK)
Approved
EU Regulatory approval status
Approved
Chemical structure
Isomerism
A complex molecule with 6 chiral centres
Chemical formula
C₂₂H₂₄N₂O₉
Canonical SMILES
CC1(C2C(C3C(C(=O)C(=C(C3(C(=O)C2=C(C4=C1C=CC=C4O)O)O)O)C(=O)N)N(C)C)O)O
Isomeric SMILES
C[C@@]1([C@H]2[C@@H]([C@H]3[C@@H](C(=O)C(=C([C@]3(C(=O)C2=C(C4=C1C=CC=C4O)O)O)O)C(=O)N)N(C)C)O)O
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
IWVCMVBTMGNXQD-PXOLEDIWSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C22H24N2O9/c1-21(32)7-5-4-6-8(25)9(7)15(26)10-12(21)17(28)13-14(24(2)3)16(27)11(20(23)31)19(30)22(13,33)18(10)29/h4-6,12-14,17,25,27-29,32-33H,1-3H3,(H2,23,31)/t12-,13-,14+,17+,21-,22+/m1/s1
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
oxytetracycline -
General status
Veterinary substance type
Bactericide, Antimicrobial, Antiseptic, Medicated feed additive
Other constituent type
Antimicrobial
Substance groups
Micro-organism derived substance
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Natural
Mode of action
Broad spectrum, protein synthesis inhibitor and binds to the 30S and 50S bacterial ribosomal subunits
Molecular targets
[30S ribosomal protein S9, Antagonist], [30S ribosomal protein S4, Antagonist], [16S rRNA, Antagonist]
CAS RN
79-57-2
Alternative/old CAS RN
2058-46-0; 6153-64-6 (dihydrate)
EC number
201-212-8
CIPAC number
316
US EPA chemical code
006308
PubChem CID
-
Therapeutic Class
Dermatologicals: Antibiotics and chemotherapeutics for dermatological use; Antiinfectants for systemic use: Antibacterials for systemic use
ATCvet Code
QD06AA03 for topical use; QJ01AA06 for systemic use; Others available
Controlled Drug?
No
Regulation 37/2010 MRL Classification
Allowed substance (Table 1: All food producing species)
Molecular mass
460.44
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
(4S,4aR,5S,5aR,6S,12aS)-4-dimethylamino-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,5,6,10,12,12a-hexahydroxy-6-methyl-1,11-dioxonaphthacene-2-carboxamide
CAS name
(4S,4aR,5S,5aR,6S,12aS)-4-(dimethylamino)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,5,6,10,12,12a-hexahydroxy-6-methyl-1,11-dioxo-2-naphthacenecarboxamide
Other status information
Possible groundwater contaminant
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Physical state
Pale yellow to tan coloured crystalline powder
Related substances & organisms
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Authorisation Route
Legal Class (GB/UK)
Example products (past and present) using this active
Alamycin Solution for Injection Norbrook Laboratories Ltd UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Engemycin DD Solution for Injection MSD Animal Health UK Ltd UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Hypersol Powder for Drinking Water Huvepharma SA GB National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Cyclosol LA 200mg/ml Solution for Injection Eurovet Animal Health B.V. GB National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Formulation and application details
Currently available formulations include solutions for injection, cutaneous sprays, powders for adding to drinking water and medicated premix feeds
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
600
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
Decomposes on melting
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
179
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
- - -
Log P
- - -
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
- - -
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
- - -
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
- - -
Volatilisation as max % of applied dose lost
From plant surface
- - -
From soil surface
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Refractive Index
- - -
Environmental release
Substance may enter the environment via the faeces of treated animals or by leaching from spilt medicated feed. Monitoring studies have identified this substance in livestock manures.
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
- - -
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
Note
-
Manure DT₅₀ (days)
43.8
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Aerobic sediment slurry; Other data DT₅₀ (1) 79 days slurry; (2) 12,0-15.4 day slurry
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Air degradation
As this parameter is not normally measured directly, a surrogate measure is used: ‘Photochemical oxidative DT₅₀’. Where data is available, this can be found in the Fate Indices section below.
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
- - -
Koc
-
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
- - -
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
0.6
J2 J = Pesticide Action Network database (click here )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Mollusca
Low potential
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Known metabolites

None

ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 5620
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Anas platyrhynchos as HCl variant
Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1954
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
as HCl variant
Low
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
100
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
as HCl variant
Moderate
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other bee species (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other bee species (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Temperate Freshwater Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
116
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Oncorhynchus mykiss as HCl variant
Low
Temperate Freshwater Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Tropical Freshwater Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Temperate Freshwater Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
102
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna as HCl variant
Low
Temperate Freshwater Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
46.2
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna as HCl variant
Low
Tropical Freshwater Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.342
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Selenastrum capricornutum as HCl variant
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.183
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Selenastrum capricornutum as HCl variant
Moderate
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
- - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
Systemically available oxytetracycline was primarily excreted in the urine and bile
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous data from online sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
Yes, known to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
May cause hypersensitivity reactions
May cause tooth discoloration
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H302, H312, H317, H332, H360d
Environment: H400, H410
WHO Classification
Not listed (Not listed)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
Shelf-life, storage, stability and reactivity
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
oxytetracycline
French
oxytetracycline
German
Oxytetracyclin
Danish
oxytetracyclin
Italian
oxytetracicline
Spanish
oxitetraciclina
Greek
-
Polish
oksytetracyklina
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-
Norwegian
-

Record last updated: 24/05/2024
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242