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chlorpyrifos (Ref: OMS 971)
** ENT 27311 ** chlorpyriphos ** Dowco 179 ** chlorpyrifos ethyl ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

An organophosphate insecticide approved for use in the EU. It has a low aqueous solubility, is quite volatile and is non-mobile. There is a low risk of leaching to groundwater based on its chemical properties. It can be moderately persistent in soil systems but is not usually persistent in water systems. It is highly toxic to mammals, is classified as a reproduction toxicant, an acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor and a neurotoxicant. It is also a skin and eye irritant. It is highly toxic to birds, fish, aquatic inverterbrates and honey bees and moderately toxic to aquatic plants, algae and earthworms

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for chlorpyrifos

Description: A broad spectrum organophosphorus insecticide and acaricide used to control soil and foliage pests

Example pests controlled: Scale; Wooly aphid; Leaf roller; Caterpillars; Corn earworm; Armyworm; Cutworms; Rootworms; Cockroaches; Flea beetles; Flies; Termites; Fire ants

Example applications: Cereals including barley, wheat; Cotton; Fruit including apples, pears, grapes, pineapples, bananas, strawberries, mango; Tomatoes; Nuts; Vegetables inclding carrots, cabbages, cauliflower, Brussel sprouts

Efficacy & activity: Chlorpyrifos has been used very successfully over a long period of time to control a wide range of foliar pests on agricultural crops.

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 1965, first reported and introduced

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Spain/Poland
Date inclusion expires 31/01/2019
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) No
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: Australia, USA

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism -
Chemical formula C9H11Cl3NO3PS
Canonical SMILES CCOP(=S)(OCC)OC1=NC(=C(C=C1Cl)Cl)Cl
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) SBPBAQFWLVIOKP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C9H11Cl3NO3PS/c1-3-14-17(18,15-4-2)16-9-7(11)5-6(10)8(12)13-9/h5H,3-4H2,1-2H3
Structure diagram/image available? Yes

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Insecticide
Substance group Organophosphate
Minimum active substance purity 970 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - Sulfotep <3.0 g/kg, Acetone insolubles <5.0 g/kg
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Non-systemic with contact, inhalation and stomach action. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor.
CAS RN 2921-88-2
EC number 220-864-4
CIPAC number 221
US EPA chemical code 059101
PubChem CID 2730
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 350.58
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl) phosphorothioate
IUPAC name O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate
CAS name O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl) phosphorothioate
Other status information OSPAR soc; WFD priority substance; Marine Pollutant
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards UK Environment Agency non-statutory standard for the protection of aquatic life: Freshwater annual average 0.002 ug/L, max acceptable conc 0.01 ug/L; Saltwater annual average 0.001 ug/L, max acceptable conc 0.01 ug/L
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) 1B
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance Aedes aegypti
Aedes nigromaculis
Anopheles pharoensis
Bemisia argentifolii
Culex pipiens pipiens
Helicoverpa armigera
Plutella xylostella
Spodoptera litura
Tribolium castaneum
plus others
Physical state White to light brown coloured crystals
Related substances & organisms -

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Dow AgroSciences
  • Headland
  • Makhteshim-Agan
  • SumiAgro
  • Scotts
Example products using this active
  • Alpha Chlorpyrifos
  • Ballad
  • Cyren
  • Dursban WG
  • Equity
  • Govern
  • Parapet
UK LERAP status Buffer probably required in UK - see product label
Formulation and application details Usually supplied as an emulsifiable concentrates that is mixed with water and applied as a spray. Also supplied as granules for direct application to soil.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for chlorpyrifos

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 1.05 A5 Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 774000 A5 - Hexane -
290000 A5 - Methanol -
4000000 A5 - Ethyl acetate -
4000000 A5 - Toluene -
Melting point (oC) 42 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling A5 -
Degradation point (oC) 170 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 5.01 X 1004 Calculated -
Log P 4.7 A5 High
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.51 A5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC Not applicable A5 -
Note: No dissociation
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 1.43 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 0.478 A5 Moderately volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 3.63 Calculated High leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 8.13 X 10-01 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Medium
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 Neutral soln: 203nm=21174, 230nm=10359, 290nm=5620
Acid soln: 203nm=22223, 230nm=10347, 290nm=5907
Alkaline soln: 242nm=9413, 290nm=1633, 323nm=6701
A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability Not readily biodegradable
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 386 A5 Very persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 386 A5 Very persistent
DT50 (field) 27.6 A5 Non-persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 250 A5 EU 2005 data -
DT90 (field) 113 A5 -
DT50 modelling endpoint 23.4 A5 geometric mean -
Note EU 2017 dossier Lab studies DT50 range 19.8->1000 days, Soils=8, Field - studies DT50 range 0.32-88.9 days, DT90 range 12.2-295 days, Soils =6
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value 3.3 R4 -
Note Published literature RL50 range 0.7-10.0 days, 11 field & undercover grown crops, various matrices, n=12
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value 7.2 R4 -
Note Published literature RL50 range 0.95-127.0 days, 30 field & undercover grown crops, various matrices, n=77
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 29.6 A5 Slow
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value 53.5 A5 Moderately persistent
Note pH sensitive 63-73 days @ pH 5, 16-23 days @ pH 8
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 36.5 A5 Moderately fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) 5 A5 Moderately fast

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd 126.6 A5 Non-mobile
Koc 5509
Notes and range EU 2017 dossier Kd range 55.2-295 mL/g, Koc range 3187-7733 mL/g, Soils=5; Other sources: 6070 mL/g (DW3), >5000 (E4)
Freundlich Kf 91.6 A5 Moderately mobile
Kfoc 395
1/n 0.92
Notes and range EU 2017 dossier Kf range 45.2-234 mL/g, Kfoc range 1520-5442 mL./g, 1/n range 0.86-0.97, Soils=5
pH sensitivity No

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.602   Major fraction, Relevant
2,3,5-trichloro-6-methoxypyridine Soil   0.087   Minor fraction, Relevant

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
O-ethyl-O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl)phosphorothioic acid phosphorothioate Water (Hydrolysis) >0.100 -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for chlorpyrifos

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 1374 A5 (Other literature log BCF range 0.8-5.4 (R3) Threshold for concern
CT50 (days) 2.5 -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 66 A5 Rat High
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 1 L2 Rat, 2 year High
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 39.2 A5 Colinus virginianus High
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) 203 ppm A5 Anas platyrhynchos -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.025 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.00014 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss High
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 0.00010 A5 Daphnia magna High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.0046 A5 Daphnia magna High
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.00004 F4 Americamysis bahia High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.00024 F4 Chironomus riparius High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) 0.0001 F4 Chironomus riparius High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 0.53 R4 Lemna minor Moderate
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 0.48 H4 Unknown species Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) 0.043 Q2 Unknown species Moderate
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) 0.059 A5 High
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) 0.25 A5 High
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 129 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) 12.7 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect 0.2 A5 Folsomia candida, 35day LC50 Mortality mg kg-1 -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 0.2 A5 Aphidius colemani -
% Effect 100 Mortality
Dose: Field rate
Q2 Galendromus occidentalis
-
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 1986 A5 Typhlodromus pyri -
% Effect 100 Mortality
Dose: Field rate
Q2 Neoseiulus fallacis
-
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5
Dose: 4.8 kg ha-1
-
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 0.1 A5 EAC -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for chlorpyrifos

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 66 A5 Rat High
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 1250 A5 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 0.1 A5 Rat (whole body) -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.001 A5 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.005 A5 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.001 A5 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 0.2-25 A5 concentration & product dependent -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 List I; List II - -
Exposure Limits [UK LT TWA 8 hr: 0.2 mg/m3], [UK STEL 15 mins: 0.6 mg/m3] MEL UK HSE -
Exposure Routes Public Possible risks of exposure when close to spraying activity
Occupational PPE/PPC required to mitigate any expsoure risks
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards Non-statutory WHO drinking water guideline 0.03 mg/L UK EA QS database, 2018 -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

General human health issues Highly toxic by ingestion
Some studies indicate a link between chlorpyrifos metabolites and learning difficulties in children
Suspected cardiovascular & blood toxicant

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Not explosive or oxidising
IMDG Transport Code is 6.1
CLP classification 2013 Health: H301
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases T - Toxic: R25
Xn - Harmful: R21, R43
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S1/2, S45, S60, S61
WHO Classification II - Moderately hazardous
US EPA Classification (formulation) II - Warning - Moderately toxic
UN Number Active 2783, liquid products usually 3018
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks Packaging Group III (minor danger)


TRANSLATIONS

for chlorpyrifos

Language Name
English chlorpyrifos
French chlorpyriphos
German Chlorpyrifos
Danish chlorpyrifos
Italian clorpirifos
Spanish clorpirifos
Greek chlorpyrifos
Slovenian klorpirifos
Polish chloropyrifos
Swedish klorpyrifos
Hungarian chlorpyrifos
Dutch chloorpyrifos

Record last updated: Tuesday 30 October 2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk