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PhD Oportunity with Syngenta & the University of Hertfordshire

chlorpyrifos-methyl (Ref: OMS 1155)
** ENT 27520 ** Dowco 214 ** chlorpyriphos-methyl ** chlorpyrifos-me ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

An organophosphate insecticide approved for use in the EU. It has a low aqueous solubility, is quite volatile and is non-mobile. There is a low risk of leaching to groundwater based on its chemical properties. It tends not to be persistent in soil or water systems. It is not highly toxic to mammals but is classified as an acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor and a neurotoxicant. It is also a skin irritant and sensitiser. It is highly toxic to fish, aquatic inverterbrates and honey bees and moderately toxic to birds, aquatic plants, algae and earthworms

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for chlorpyrifos-methyl

Description: An insecticide and acaricide used to control soil and foliage pests

Example pests controlled: Scale; Wooly aphid; Leaf roller; Caterpillars; Cutworms; Rootworms; Cockroaches; Flea beetles; Flies; Termites; Fire ants

Example applications: Grains; Cotton; Fruit including apples, pears, grapes, pineapples, bananas, strawberries, mango; Tomatoes; Nuts; Vegetables including carrots, cabbages, cauliflower

Efficacy & activity: Chlorpyrifos has been used very successfully over a long period of time to control a wide range of foliar pests on agricultural crops.

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 1966, first reported; 1985, first marketed USA

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Spain/Poland
Date inclusion expires 31/01/2019
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) No
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: Australia, USA

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Insecticide, Acaricide
Substance group Organophosphate
Minimum active substance purity 960 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - Sulfotep <3.0 g/kg, Sulfotep-ester <5.0 g/kg
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Non-systemic with contact, stomach and respiratory action. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor.
CAS RN 5598-13-0
EC number 227-011-5
CIPAC number 486
US EPA chemical code 059102
PubChem CID 21803
Isomerism -
Chemical formula C7H7Cl3NO3PS
Canonical SMILES COP(=S)(OC)OC1=NC(=C(C=C1Cl)Cl)Cl
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) HRBKVYFZANMGRE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C7H7Cl3NO3PS/c1-12-15(16,13-2)14-7-5(9)3-4(8)6(10)11-7/h3H,1-2H3
Structure diagram/image available? Yes
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 322.53
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) O,O-dimethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl) phosphorothioate
IUPAC name O,O-dimethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate
CAS name O,O-dimethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl) phosphorothioate
Other status information OSPAR soc; WFD priority substance; Marine Pollutant
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards UK Environment Agency non-statutory standard for the protection of aquatic life: Freshwater annual average 0.002 ug/L, max acceptable conc 0.01 ug/L; Saltwater annual average 0.001 ug/L, max acceptable conc 0.01 ug/L
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) 1B
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance blattella germanica
culex tarsalis
plutella xylostella
sitophilus zeamais
tribolium castaneum
aedes nigromaculis
plus others
Physical state White to pale yellow solid with faint characteristic odour
Related substances & organisms -

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Dow AgroSciences
Example products using this active
  • Reldane 22
UK LERAP status None
Formulation and application details Usually supplied as an emulsifiable concentrate that is mixed with water and applied as a spray.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for chlorpyrifos-methyl

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 2.74 A5 Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 250000 A5 - Ethyl acetate -
250000 A5 - Acetone -
154000 A5 - Heptane -
193000 A5 - Methanol -
Melting point (oC) 46 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling A5 -
Degradation point (oC) 175 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 1.00 X 1004 Calculated -
Log P 4.00 A5 High
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.67 A5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC - - -
Note:
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 3.0 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 0.235 A5 Moderately volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 0.92 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 1.43 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Medium
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 Neutral soln: 203nm=20322, 230nm=10112, 290nm=5449
Acidic soln: 203nm=20367, 230nm=9567, 290nm=5473
Basic soln: 242nm=9475, 290nm=1423, 323nm=6817
A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) 71.9 A5 -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 12.0 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 12.5 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) 1.24 A5 Non-persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 15.4 A5 -
DT90 (field) 4.5 A5 -
DT50 modelling endpoint 1.32 A5 geometric mean -
Note EU 2017 dossier Lab studies DT50 range 0.83-7.64 days, DT90 range 2.75-38.1 days, Soils=12, Field studies DT50 range 0.62-2.17 days, DT90 range 2.07-7.22 days, Soils=5; Other sources: DT50 7 days (DW4)
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value 2.4 R3 -
Note Bermuda grass leaves, n=1
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value 19.1 R4 -
Note Published literature RL50 range 1.0-71.5 days, 4 field crops, various matrices, n=4
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 1.74 A5 Moderately fast
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value 21 A5 Non-persistent
Note pH sensitive: 27 days at pH 4, 13 days at pH 9, 25 degC
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 14 A5 Fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) 2.9 A5 Moderately fast

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - A5 Non-mobile
Koc 4645
Notes and range EU dossier Koc range 1189-8100 mL/g
Freundlich Kf 44.9 A5 Slightly mobile
Kfoc 1462
1/n 0.96
Notes and range EU 2017 dossier Kf range 25.8-64.5 mL/g, Kfoc range 691-1892 mL/g, 1/n range 0.93-0.98, Soils=5
pH sensitivity No

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.879   Major fraction, Relevant
2,3,5-trichloro-6-methoxypyridine Soil   0.049   Minor fraction, Relevant

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
N-methyl-dichloro-2-pyridinone - Soil - -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for chlorpyrifos-methyl

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 1800 A5 Threshold for concern
CT50 (days) 2.6 -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 5000 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 0.1 L2 Rat, 2 year High
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 923 A5 Colinus virginianus Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) 2010 ppm A5 Colinus virginianus -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.41 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.005 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss High
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 0.0006 A5 Daphnia magna High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.00001 A5 Daphnia magna High
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) - - -
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 0.57 L2 Raphidocelis subcapitata, 72 hour Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) 0.15 A5 Apis mellifera High
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) 0.18 A5 Apis mellifera High
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 182 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) 12.5 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect 9.0 Mortality
Dose: 0.286 kg ha-1
A5 Typhlodromus pyri
-
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect 100 Mortality
Dose: 0.286 kg ha-1
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi
-
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5
Dose: 0.5 kg ha-1
-
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for chlorpyrifos-methyl

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 5000 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 2000 A5 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) > 0.67 A5 Rat (whole body) -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.01 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.1 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.01 A5 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) - - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 List I; List II - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public -
Occupational Absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and through intact skin
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards Non-statutory WHO drinking water guideline 0.03 mg/L UK EA QS database, 2018 -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

-

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

General human health issues Suspected cardiovascular & blood toxicant
Highly toxic by ingestion
Some studies indicate a link between chlorpyrifos metabolites and learning difficulties in children
Endocrine issues - Antagonist to androgen activity

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Not explosive or oxidising
IMDG Transport Code is 6.1
CLP classification 2013 Health: H317
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases T - Toxic: R25
Xn - Harmful: R43
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S2, S36/37, S60, S61
WHO Classification III - Slightly hazardous
US EPA Classification (formulation) III - Caution - Slightly toxic
UN Number Active 2783, liquid products usually 3018
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks Packaging Group III (minor danger)


TRANSLATIONS

for chlorpyrifos-methyl

Language Name
English chlorpyrifos-methyl
French chlorpyriphos-methyl
German Chlorpyrifos-methyl
Danish chlorpyrifos-methyl
Italian clorpirifos-metile
Spanish clorpirifos-metil
Greek chlorpyrifos-methyl
Slovenian klorpirifos-metil
Polish chloropyrifos metylowy
Swedish -
Hungarian klorpirosz-metil
Dutch chloorpyrifos-methyl

Record last updated: Tuesday 05 June 2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk