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clothianidin (Ref: CGA 322704)
** Tl 435 ** HSDB 7281 ** thiamethoxam metabolite ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

Clothianidin is an insecticide approved for use in the EU. It is moderately soluble and volatile but has a high potential for leaching to groundwater. It is very persisent in soil and water. Risk of bioaccumulation is low and its acute toxicity to mammals is considered moderate. It is, however, a nurotoxicant. It is toxic to some aquatic organisms but not greatly so to fish. It is highly toxic to honeybees but low risk to earthworms.

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for clothianidin

Description: An insecticide used to control sucking and chewing pests on a range of crops including rice, maize and fruit

Example pests controlled: Corn rootworm, Southern corn billbug, Chinch flea beetle, Corn leaf aphid, Cutworms; Seedcorn maggots; Stinkbugs; Thrips; Wireworms; Flea beetles

Example applications: Corn; OSR; Rice; Orchards - apples, apricots, peach, pear, nectarines etc.; Potatoes; Ornamentals; Kohlrabi; Cabbage

Efficacy & activity: -

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 2002

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Denmark/Spain
Date inclusion expires Not applicable
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) No
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: Australia, USA, China

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism Isomeric - exists predominantly in the E-form.
Chemical formula C6H8ClN5O2S
Canonical SMILES CN=C(NCC1=CN=C(S1)Cl)N[N+](=O)[O-]
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) PGOOBECODWQEAB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C6H8ClN5O2S/c1-8-6(11-12(13)14)10-3-4-2-9-5(7)15-4/h2H,3H2,1H3,(H2,8,10,11)/f/h8,10H/b11-6+
2D structure diagram/image available? Yes

Click to access the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC) website
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams:
Common Name Relationship Link
Clothianidin E-isomer Click here for the CCDC structure diagram

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Insecticide, Metabolite
Metabolite Type Soil
Substance group Neonicotinoid
Minimum active substance purity 960 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - None declared
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Translaminar and root systemic activity. Acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist.
CAS RN 210880-92-5
EC number -
CIPAC number 738
US EPA chemical code 044309
PubChem CID 213027
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 249.7
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) (E)-N-[(2-chloro-1,3-thiazol-5-yl)methyl]-N'-methyl-N'-nitroguanidine
IUPAC name (E)-1-(2-chloro-1,3-thiazol-5-ylmethyl)-3-methyl-2-nitroguanidine
CAS name (C(E))-N-((2-chloro-5-thiazolyl)methyl)-N'-methyl-N'-nitroguanidine
Other status information NOTE ban or usage restriction may be in place for use on flowering crops in some Member States
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) 4A
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance Leptinotarsa decemlineata
Myzus persicae
Physical state Colourless powder
Related substances & organisms

Can be a metabolite of:
Parent Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
thiamethoxam Soil   0.356   Major fraction, Relevant

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Bayer CropScience
  • Sumitomo Chemical Co
  • Takeda Chemicals
Example products using this active
  • Deter
  • Modesto
  • Poncho
UK LERAP status None
Formulation and application details Usually supplied as a flowable concentrate prepared for uses as a seed treatment.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for clothianidin

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 340 A4 - pH 10 Moderate
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 1.04 A5 - Heptane -
12.8 A5 - Xylene -
15200 A5 - Acetone -
2030 A5 - Ethyl acetate -
Melting point (oC) 176.8 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling V3 -
Degradation point (oC) - - -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 8.04 X 1000 Calculated -
Log P 0.905 A5 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.61 A5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC 11.1 A5 -
Note: Strong base
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 2.8 X 10-08 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 2.9 X 10-11 A5 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 4.91 Calculated High leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 9.02 X 10-01 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Medium
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 Neutral solution: 214.5nm = 7770, 265.5nm = 17100, 290nm = 5350 A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 545 A5 Very persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 545 A5 Very persistent
DT50 (field) 121.2 A5 Persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT90 (field) 387 A5 -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU dossier lab studies DT50 range 143-1001 days, field studies DT50 range 13.3-305.4 days, DT90 range 188- >1000 days; Other studies: field DT50 range 277-1386 days (USA and Canada)
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value 16.6 R4 -
Note Published literature RL50 range 4.4-35.9 days, 3 field crops, various matrices, n=3
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 0.1 A5 Fast
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable A5 -
Note Stable pH 4 to pH 9 at 20 degC, hydrolysis occurs in alkali media at elevated temperatures e.g. DT50 14.4 days at pH 9, 50 degC
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 56.4 A5 Moderately fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) 40.3 A5 Stable

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - A5 Moderately mobile
Koc 123
Notes and range -
Freundlich Kf 1.48 A5 Moderately mobile
Kfoc 160
1/n 0.829
Notes and range EU dossier Kf range 0.52-4.4 mL/g, Kfoc range 84-345 mL/g, 1/n range 0.809-0.865, Soils=5
pH sensitivity No

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
N-(2-chlorothiazol-5-ylmethyl)-N-nitroguanidine Soil   0.091   Minor fraction, Relevant
N-methyl-N-nitroguanidine This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.107   Major fraction, Relevant
N-(2-chlorothiazol-5-ylmethyl)-N-methylurea Soil (photolysis)   0.044   Minor fraction, Relevant

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
N-(2-chlorothiazol-5-ylmethyl)-N-methylguanidine
Note: Toxicologically relevant; Koc 525-3620 mL/g
TMG; thiazolmethylguanidine Soil; Plants; Sediment; Rat - -
nitroguanidine
Note: DT50 soil: 57-95 days; Koc 20.5 days
NTG a=Soil; b=Animal; c=Rat a:0.063 -
formamide FA Water 0.160 -
methylurea MU Water 0.11 -
- TNG Soil - -
methylguanidine
Note: Tociologically relvant
MG a=Water (Photolysis); b=Plants; c=Rat a=0.350 -
5-aminomethyl-2-chlorothiazole ACT Rat - -
2-Chlorothiazole-5-carboxylic acid CTCA Rat - -
2-Methylthiothiazole-5-carboxylic acid MTCA Rat - -
N-2-chlorothiazol-5-ylmethyl-N-hydroxy-N-methyl-N-nitroguanidine THMN; thiazolhydroxymethylnitroguanidine Rat - -
2-chlorothiazol-5-ylmethylguanidine TZG; Thiazolguanidine Rat - -
2-Chlorothiazol-5-ylmethylurea TZU; Thiazolylurea Rat - -
urea - Rat - -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for clothianidin

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) Low risk P3 Based on LogP < 3 Low potential
CT50 (days) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 500 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 10.0 A5 Rat High
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 430 A5 Colinus virginianus Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) > 752 mg kg bw-1 day-1 A5 Anas platyrhynchos -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) > 104.2 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Low
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 20.0 A5 Pimephales promelas Low
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) > 40 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.12 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.029 A5 Chironomus riparius High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) 0.00072 A5 Chironomus riparius High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) > 121 Q2 Lemna gibba Low
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 55 A5 Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata Low
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) 0.044 A5 Apis mellifera High
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) 0.004 A5 Apis mellifera High
Unknown mode acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) 0.02 R4 Bombus terrestris High
-
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) 0.1 R4 Osmia lignaria High
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) > 8.4 R4 Osmia bicornis Moderate
Other pollinators (1) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) 0.08 R4 Megachile rotundata High
Mode of exposure Oral
Other pollinators (2) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 13.21 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) 2.5 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Other soil macro-organisms Acute LC50 (mg kg-1) - - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg-1) - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect 100 Mortality
Dose: 0.06 kg ha-1
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi, adult
-
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect 96.7 Mortality
Dose: 0.06 kg ha-1
A5 Typhlodromus pyri, adult
-
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5
Dose: 0.75 kg ha-1
-
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 0.0031 A5 Aquatic community -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for clothianidin

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 500 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 2000 A5 Rabbit -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) > 5.54 A5 Rat -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.097 A5 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.1 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.1 A5 Rat, ASF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 2.25 A5 -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Routes Public Minimal risk from dietary exposure
Risk assessment indicates ARfD would not normally be execeeded
Occupational Risk of exposure acceptable under label recommendations for use for personal protection clothing and equipment
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Genotoxic Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

A0; B0; C3; D0; E3

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

-

General human health issues Effects consistent with endocrine disruption have been noted in rodents and dogs
May cause hypotension, hypothermia and impaired pupillar function
Key: Genotoxicity
A: Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
B: DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
C: Gene mutation (EFSA database)
D: Genome mutation (EFSA database)
E: Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0: No data
1: Positive
2: Mixed/ambiguous results
3: Negative
Key: Other
: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Not explosive
CLP classification 2013 Health: H302
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Xn - Harmful: R22
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S2, S46, S60, S61
WHO Classification NL - Not listed
UN Number -
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks -


TRANSLATIONS

for clothianidin

Language Name
English clothianidin
French clothianidine
German Clothianidin
Danish clothianidin
Italian clotianidin
Spanish clotianidin
Greek -
Slovenian klotianidin
Polish chlotianidyna
Swedish -
Hungarian -
Dutch -

Record last updated: Monday 11 November 2019
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk