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Diphacinone sodium
Last updated: 17/01/2021
(Also known as: diphacin sodium; diphenadione sodium)

SUMMARY
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
High alert:
Persistent
Ecotoxicity
Moderate alert:
Fish acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: Moderate
Human health
High alert:
Mammals acute toxicity: High
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An anticoagulant rodenticide
Example pests controlled
Rats; Mice; Voles; Squirrels; Other small rodents
Example applications
Rats; Mice; Voles; Squirrels; Other small rodents
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
circa 1952
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Expired
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Not applicable
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicavble
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Additional information
Also used in
Australia, USA
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₂₃H₁₅NaO₃
Canonical SMILES
-
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
DSRYAHGDJUHNRF-UHFFFAOYSA-M
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C23H16O3.Na/c24-21-17-13-7-8-14-18(17)22(25)20(21)23(26)19(15-9-3-1-4-10-15)16-11-5-2-6-12-16;/h1-14,19,24H;/q;+1/p-1
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Pesticide type
Rodenticide
Substance group
Indandione anticoagulant
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Anti-coagulant with longer activity than warfarin
CAS RN
42721-99-3
EC number
-
CIPAC number
-
US EPA chemical code
-
PubChem CID
-
Molecular mass
362.35
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
sodium 2-(diphenylacetyl)-1-oxo-1H-inden-3-olate
IUPAC name
sodium 2-(diphenylacetyl)-1-oxo-1H-inden-3-olate
CAS name
sodium 2-(diphenylacetyl)-1-oxo-1H-inden-3-olate
Other status information
Marine Pollutant
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
Pale yellow powder
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • velsicol
  • Bell laboratories
Example products using this active
  • Ratindan
  • Diphacine
  • Ditrac
  • Gold crest
  • Kill-Ko
  • Ramik
Formulation and application details
Available in a wide variety of formulations including meal, pellet, wax block, liquid bait and concentrate formulations.
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
- - -
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
7.08 X 1004 Calculated -
Log P
4.85
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
as diphacinone
High
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
- - -
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
Not applicable
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
1.37 X 10-05
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
as diphacinone
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
1.55 X 10-05
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
as diphacinone
Non-volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
5
S1 S = Expert judgement
1 = Estimated data with little or no verification
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
102
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Persistent
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Best available data as diphacinone rather than the odium salt- literature variable DT₅₀ 1-150 days
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
Stable
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Stable
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
S3 S = Expert judgement
3 = Unverified data of known source
as diphacinone
Slightly mobile
Koc
2255
Notes and range
Other data source: 5477 mL g⁻¹ (US3)
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
1.30 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
3.11 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
- - -
Potential for loss via drain flow
- - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
- - -
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
2.3
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat as diphacinone
High
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
-
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
as diphacinone
-
(ppm diet)
0.1 -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 3158
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Anas platyrhynchos as diphacinone
Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
2.8
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Oncorhynchus mykiss as diphacinone
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
1.8
J4 J = Pesticide Action Network database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna as diphacinone
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
2.3
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat as diphacinone
High
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
200
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat as diphacinone
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
2.0
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat as diphacinone
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Great Britain
GB MRL Register 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
?Possibly, status not identified
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Highly toxic
Anticoagulant
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H300, H372
EC Risk Classification
T+ - Very toxic: R28
T - Toxic: R48/23/24/25
EC Safety Classification
S1/2, S36/37, S45
WHO Classification
Ia (Extremely hazardous)
UN Number
2588
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
diphacinone sodium
French
-
German
-
Danish
-
Italian
-
Spanish
-
Greek
-
Polish
-
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 17/01/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242