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Azinphos-methyl
Last updated: 27/04/2021
(Also known as: azinphosmethyl; metiltriazotion; cotnion methyl; gusathion methyl)

SUMMARY
Azinphos-methyl is an organophosphate insecticide that is not approved for use in the EU. It has a low aqueous solubility, is volatile and not expected to leach to groundwater. It is generally not persistent in soil or water systems. Azinphos-methyl is highly toxic to mammals but is not expected to bioaccumulate. It is a neurotoxicant and an acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor. It is highly toxic to birds, honeybees and most aquatic life. It is moderately toxic to earthworms.
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
Moderate alert:
Moderately persistent; Drainflow: Slightly mobile; Potential for particle bound transport: Medium
Ecotoxicity
High alert:
Birds acute ecotoxicity: High; Fish acute ecotoxicity: High; Fish chronic ecotoxicity: High; Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: High; Daphnia chronic ecotoxicity: High; Bees acute contact ecotoxicity: High
Human health
High alert:
Mammals acute toxicity: High; Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor; Neurotoxicant
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An organophosphorus insecticide for the control of sucking and chewing pests
Example pests controlled
Mites, Ticks, Aphids; Slugs; Snails
Example applications
Lowland rice; Fruit; vegetables; Tobacco; Nuts; Ornamentals
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
1955
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Expired
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Germany
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
-
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
Australia, USA
Chemical structure
Isomerism
None
Chemical formula
C₁₀H₁₂N₃O₃PS₂
Canonical SMILES
COP(=S)(OC)SCN1C(=O)C2=CC=CC=C2N=N1
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
CJJOSEISRRTUQB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C10H12N3O3PS2/c1-15-17(18,16-2)19-7-13-10(14)8-5-3-4-6-9(8)11-12-13/h3-6H,7H2,1-2H3
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
azinphos-methyl -
General status
Pesticide type
Insecticide, Acaricide, Mollusicide
Substance group
Organophosphate
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Non-systemic, contact and stomach action. Cholinesterase inhibitor.
CAS RN
86-50-0
EC number
201-676-1
CIPAC number
37
US EPA chemical code
058001
PubChem CID
2268
Molecular mass
317.32
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
O,O-dimethyl S-[(4-oxo-1,2,3-benzotriazin-3(4H)-yl)methyl] phosphorodithioate
IUPAC name
S-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-1,2,3-benzotriazin-3-ylmethyl O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate
CAS name
O,O-dimethyl S-[(4-oxo-1,2,3-benzotriazin-3(4H)-yl)methyl] phosphorodithioate
Other status information
Potential groundwater contaminant; Severe Marine Pollutant; Chemical subject to PIC regulations; PAN Bad Actor
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
UK statutory standard for protection of inland, coastal and territorial waters for aquatic life 0.01 µg l⁻¹ as annual average
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
1B
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
Predatory mites, Aphids, Lacewings, Codling moth, Leaf miners, plus others
Physical state
White crystals
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Gusathion M
  • Co-thion
  • Azinpaz
  • Carfene
  • Guthion
Example products using this active
  • Makhteshim Agan
  • General Quimica S.A.
  • Bayer
  • Mobay
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as concentrate suspensions, liquids and wettable powders
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
28
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
250000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Acetone
-
250000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Ethyl acetate
-
170000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Xylene
-
1200
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
n-Heptane
-
Melting point (°C)
73
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
Decomposes before boiling
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
200
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Flashpoint (°C)
Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
9.12 X 1002 Calculated -
Log P
2.96
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Moderate
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.52
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
5
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Weak acid
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
5.00 X 10-04
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
5.70 X 10-06
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
10
W4 W = French database provided by ARVALIS-Institut du Végétal
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
31
A3 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
8.7
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Note
Published literature RL₅₀ range 1.0-30.0 days, 8 field crops, various matrices, n=11; Apples & lemons in cold storage RL₅₀ range 46-122 days
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
8.8
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Note
Published literature RL₅₀ range 4.0-16.0 days, 6 field crops, various matrices, n=6
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
3
E4 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
4 = Verified data
Moderately fast
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
50
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately persistent
Note
DT₅₀ 87 days at pH 4, 4 days at pH 9
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
10.9
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Slightly mobile
Koc
1112
Notes and range
EU dossier Kd range 3.33-28.5 mL g⁻¹, Koc range 425-1282 mL g⁻¹, Soils=10
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
No
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
1.42 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
3.40 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Medium Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Slightly mobile Calculated -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
40
P4 P = Other governments and regulators
4 = Verified data
Low potential
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
9
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
High
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
-
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Rat 2 year
-
(ppm diet)
5 -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
32
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Colinus virginianus
High
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.02
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Oncorhynchus mykiss
High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.00017
J3 J = Pesticide Action Network database (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Pimephales promelas
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.0011
J4 J = Pesticide Action Network database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.0004
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna LOEC
High
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.00022
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Americamysis bahia
High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
7.15
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Raphidocelis subcapitata
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
0.42
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
High
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
59
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
Harmful [Dose: 300 g ha⁻¹]
AA3 AA = IOBC Database on classification of side effects to beneficial organisms, 2005
3 = Unverified data of known source
Typhlodromus pyri
-
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
Harmful [Dose: 300 g ha⁻¹]
AA3 AA = IOBC Database on classification of side effects to beneficial organisms, 2005
3 = Unverified data of known source
Chrysoperla carnea
-
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
9
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
High
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
175
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.15
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.005
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.1
F5 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
JMPR 2007
-
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
List I; List II - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
?Possibly, status not identified
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
No data found
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
XNo, known not to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
?Possibly, status not identified
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found  
General human health issues
No further information available
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
IMDG Transport Code is 6.1
CLP classification 2013
Health: H300, H311, H317, H330
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
T+ - Very toxic: R26/28
T - Toxic: R24
Xn - Harmful: R43
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S1/2, S28, S45, S61, S36/37, S60
WHO Classification
Ib (Highly hazardous / Highly hazardous)
UN Number
Active 2783, liquid products usually 3018
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
azinphos-methyl
French
azinphos-methyle
German
Azinphos-methyl
Danish
azinphos-methyl
Italian
azinfos-metile
Spanish
azinfos-metil
Greek
azinphos-methyl
Polish
azinofos metylowy
Swedish
azinfosmetyl
Hungarian
azinphos-metil
Dutch
azinfos-methyl

Record last updated: 27/04/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242