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P,P'-DDT
Last updated: 25/02/2021
(Also known as: clofenotane)

SUMMARY
DDT is a banned organochlorine insecticide. It has a low aqueous solubility, is relatively volatile and has a low potential to leach to groundwater. It is highly persistent in soil and non-mobile. It is moderately toxic by the oral route in humans and other mammals but is a carcinogen and endocrine disrupter. It shows a high to moderate level of toxicity to most animals and insects although it is relatively non-toxic to birds.
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A major isomer of the obsolete and banned insecticide that was used to control insect vectors of disease, especially malaria
Example pests controlled
Mosquitoes; Houseflies; Body lice; Colarado beetles; Gypsy moths
Example applications
Agricultural crops; Domestic houses; Offices, commercial and industrial situations; Non-cropped sites including roads, rights-of-way; parkland
Efficacy & activity
Not applicable
Availability status
Obsolete, Banned
Introduction & key dates
1944
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Not applicable
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Not applicable
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Not applicable
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicable
Listed in EU database
Yes as DDT
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
A major isomer of DDT which is normally around 75-85% of the DDT isomeric mix.
Chemical formula
C₁₄H₉Cl₅
Canonical SMILES
C1=CC(=CC=C1C(C2=CC=C(C=C2)Cl)C(Cl)(Cl)Cl)Cl
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
YVGGHNCTFXOJCH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C14H9Cl5/c15-11-5-1-9(2-6-11)13(14(17,18)19)10-3-7-12(16)8-4-10/h1-8,13H
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
DDT Unstated isomer
General status
Pesticide type
Insecticide
Substance group
Organochlorine
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Central nervous system stimulant. GABA-gated chloride channel antagonist.
CAS RN
50-29-3
EC number
200-024-3
CIPAC number
3
US EPA chemical code
-
PubChem CID
3036
Molecular mass
354.49
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
1,1'-(2,2,2-trichloroethane-1,1-diyl)bis(4-chlorobenzene)
IUPAC name
1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane
CAS name
1,1'-(2,2,2-trichloroethylidene)bis(4-chlorobenzene)
Other status information
WFD priority substance; Subject to PIC regulations; POP - regulated by Stockholm Convention; LRTAP Annex I; PAN Dirty Dozen; OSPAR soc; Marine Pollutant; Rotterdam Convention (Class II)
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
EU Directive 2008/105/EC EQS for total DDT surface waters: annual average 0.025 µg l⁻¹
UK statutory standard for protection of aquatic life for inland, coastal & territorial surface waters: 0.025 µg l⁻¹ as annual mean conc
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
3B
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
Wide variety of insects are resistant
Physical state
Colourless crystalline powder
Related substances & organisms
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Genitox
  • Anofex;Detoxan
  • Neocid
Example products using this active
  • Not applicable
Formulation and application details
-
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
0.025
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
at 25 °C
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
58000
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Acetone
-
78000
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Benzene
-
42000
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
benzyl benzoate
-
Melting point (°C)
109
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
Decomposes before boiling
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
162
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
(open cup)
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
8.13 X 1006 Calculated -
Log P
6.91
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
High
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
- - -
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
- - -
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
6200
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
as DDT
Very persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
2000
A3 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
3 = Unverified data of known source
as DDT
Very persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Best available data as DDT, PIC DGD; DT₅₀; Other sources: DT₅₀ 3 months in tropical regions, 4-30 years temperate regions.
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-mobile
Koc
151000
Notes and range
As DDT
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
-3.89 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
5.35 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note
Estimated concentrations of chemicals with Koc values greater than 9995 ml g⁻¹ are beyond the scope of the regression data used in SCI-GROW development. If there are concerns for such chemicals, a higher tier groundwater exposure assessment should be considered, regardless of the concentration returned by SCI-GROW
Potential for particle bound transport index
High Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Non-mobile Calculated -
Key metabolites
Metabolite
Formation medium
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
1107/2009 relevancy
DDE (Ref: HSDB 1625)
Soil - Not assessed under 91/414 or 1107/2009
DDD (Ref: ENT 4225)
Soil - Not assessed under 91/414 or 1107/2009
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
- - -
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
250
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 2240
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Anas platyrhynchos as DDT
Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 2.5
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Oncorhynchus mykiss as DDT
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.005
J4 J = Pesticide Action Network database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna as DDT
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
250
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
2510
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat as DDT
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
List I, II - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
Non-statutory WHO drinking water guideline 0.001 mg l⁻¹
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
UK EA QS database 2018
-
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
Yes, known to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E1 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
1 = Positive
?Possibly, status not identified
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Yes, known to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found  
General human health issues
Toxic by ingestion, inhalation and via skin absorption
Xenoestrogen agent
Mutagenic
Endocrine issues - Competitive binding to androgen receptors
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes.
CLP classification 2013
Health: H301, H311, H330, H351, H372, H373
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
-
EC Safety Classification
-
WHO Classification
NL (Not listed)
UN Number
2761
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
P,P'-DDT
French
p,p'-DDT
German
p,p'-DDT
Danish
p,p'-DDT
Italian
p,p'-DDT
Spanish
p,p'-DDT
Greek
p,p'-DDT
Polish
p,p'-DDT
Swedish
p,p'-DDT
Hungarian
p,p'-DDT
Dutch
p,p'-DDT

Record last updated: 25/02/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242