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thiram (Ref: ENT 987)
** thiuram ** TMTD ** thylate ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

for thiram

Description: A multi-use carbamate fungicide which is also used as a mammal repellent. Also pesticide transformation product.

Example pests controlled: As a fungicide: Seed decay; Seedling blight; Damping-off; Kernal smut; Smuts; Bunts. As a repellent: Rabbits; Deer

Example applications: Cereals including barley, millet, oats, rye, triticale; Beans and peas; Brassicas; Beet crops; Aubergines; Flax; Onions; Soybean; Sunflowers; Tomatoes; Fruit including apples, pear, cherry, strawberry

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: circa 1945

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Belgium
Date inclusion expires 30/04/2017

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries:





























Also used in: Australia, USA

General status:
Pesticide type Fungicide, Repellent, Metabolite
Metabolite Type Soil, Water, Animal
Substance group Carbamate
Minimum active substance purity 980 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - None declared
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Contact action with protective properties, acts by inhibiting spore germination and mycelial growth. Repellent properties caused by aversion to its taste. Multi-site activity.
CAS RN 137-26-8
EC number 205-286-2
CIPAC number 24
US EPA chemical code 079801
Chiral molecule No
Chemical formula C6H12N2S4
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) KUAZQDVKQLNFPE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C6H12N2S4/c1-7(2)5(9)11-12-6(10)8(3)4/h1-4H3
Structure diagram/image available? Yes
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 240.43
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) N1,N1,N3,N3-tetramethyl-2-dithioperoxy-1,3-dithiodicarbonic diamide
IUPAC name tetramethylthiuram disulfide
CAS name tetramethylthioperoxydicarbonic diamide
Other status information Chemical subject to PIC regulations (some formulations)
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) M3
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state White to yellow crystalline powder
Related substances & organisms

Can be a metabolite of:
Parent Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 91/414 relevancy
ziram Soil   0.400   Major fraction, Relvant

Property Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Agrichem
  • Chemtura
  • Unicrop
  • AgroCare
Example products using this active
  • Thiraflo
  • Thianosan
  • Greenthionock
  • Basultra
  • Thiram 80 WG
UK LERAP status None (may vary with mixtures)
Formulation and application details Often supplied as a flowable concentrate for use as a seed treatment or as a liquid concentrate for painting on to trees and as wettable granules for general use.


for thiram

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 18.0 A5 Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 8530 A5 - Ethyl acetate -
21000 A5 - Acetone -
93 A5 - Hexane -
8300 A5 - Xylene -
Melting point (oC) 145 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling A5 -
Degradation point (oC) 165 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 5.37 X 1001 Calculated -
Log P 1.73 A5 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.36 A5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC 8.19 A5 - -
Note: Weak acid
Vapour pressure at 25oC (mPa) 2.0 X 10-02 A5 Volatile
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 1.39 X 10-04 A5 Non-volatile
Henry's law constant at 20oC (dimensionless) 3.30 X 10-07 K3 Moderately volatile
GUS leaching potential index 0.01 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Value 3.12 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Medium
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 Neutral solution: 214nm = 21884, 278nm = 11342 A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) 71.5 A5 at 20degC, 99.1% w/ww -

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 4.89 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 4.89 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) 15 G4 Non-persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 13.7 A5 -
DT90 (field) - - -
Note EU RAR 2016: lab studies DT50 range 2.2 - 20.4 days, DT90 range, 9.05 - 79.89 dats, Soils=4; Other studies: lab studies DT50 ~2days, field studies DT50 range 14-65 days (R3)
Plant matrix DT50 (days) Value 6.6 R4 -
Note DT50 range 1.5 - 11.3 days, 5 crops/plants, various matrices
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 0.4 A5 Fast
Note Data for pH 5, 25 degC
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value 3.5 A5 Non-persistent
Note pH sensitive: DT50 68.5 days at pH 5, 6.9 hours at pH 9, all at 25 degC
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 1.6 A5 Fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) 1.6 A5 Moderately fast

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Linear Kd - - -
Koc -
Notes and range -
Freundlich Kf 108 A5 Non-mobile
Kfoc 9629
1/n 1.104
Notes and range EU dossier Kf range 54.1-263.1 mL/g, Kfoc range 2245-24526 mL/g, 1/n range 1.036-1.149, Soils=4
pH sensitivity No

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 91/414 relevancy
N,N dimethyl carbamosulfonic acid Soil   0.102   Major fraction, Relevant


for thiram

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 3.9 R4 (whole body) Low potential
CT50 (days) Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 1800 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 1.5 L2 Rat, 2 year High
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) > 930 A5 Colinus virginianus Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) > 947 mg kg bw-1 day-1 A4 unknown species -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.171 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.012 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 0.139 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.008 A5 Daphnia magna High
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.0033 F3 Americamysis bahia High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 1.6 F3 Lemna gibba, 7 day Moderate
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) > 0.141 A5 Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) 0.029 A5 Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata Moderate
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) > 100 A5 Low
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) > 106.8 A5 Low
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 540 A5 Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) 8.45 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 6000 >
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi
% Effect 0 Mortality
Dose: 3kg product ha-1
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 511 A5 Typhlodromus pyri -
% Effect 29.9 Total effect
Dose: 2.4 kg ha-1 x 4 apps, field tests
A5 Typhlodromus pyri
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Dose: 24 kg ha-1, 90 days
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 0.01 A5 Aquatic invertebrates and algae -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


for thiram

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 1800 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 2000 A5 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 3.46 A5 Rat -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.01 A5 Dog, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.6 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.02 A5 Dog, SF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 3-12 A5 concentration dependant -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public Acceptable for bystanders, residents and consumers
Occupational PPE/PPC recommended
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant


General human health issues High doses may cause hyperactivity, ataxia, dyspnea, and convulsions
IARC Group 3 carcinogen; USEPA - not likely to be a human carcinogen
Possible liver toxicant

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
General Not explosive or oxidising
IMDG Transport Code is usually 9
CLP classification 2013 Health: H302, H315, H317, H319, H332, H373
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification Xn - Harmful: R20/22, R43, R48/22
Xi - Irritant: R36/38
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification S2, S26, S36/37, S60, S61
WHO Classification II - Moderately hazardous
US EPA Classification (formulation) III - Caution - Slightly toxic
UN Number Variable with product, usually 3077or 3082
Waste disposal & packaging Packaging Group III (minor danger)


for thiram

Language Name
English thiram
French thirame
German Thiram
Danish thiram
Italian tiram
Spanish tiram
Greek thiram
Slovenian tiram
Polish tiram
Swedish -
Hungarian thiram
Dutch thiram

Record last updated: Monday 17 October 2016