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thiram (Ref: ENT 987)
** thiuram ** TMTD ** thylate ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

GENERAL INFORMATION
for thiram

Description: A fungicide used as a seed treatment to control "damping off" (Pithium sp) and as a spray to control other fungi such as Botrytis. Also pesticide transformation product.

Introduction: circa 1945

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Belgium
Date inclusion expires 31/07/2014

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries:

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also registered in: Australia, USA

General status:
Pesticide type Fungicide, Repellent, Metabolite
Metabolite Type Soil, Water, Animal
Substance group Dithiocarbamate
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Contact action with protective properties, acts by inhibiting spore germination and mycelial growth. Repellent properties caused by aversion to its taste.
CAS RN 137-26-8
EC number 205-286-2
CIPAC number 24
US EPA chemical code 079801
Chiral molecule No
Chemical formula C6H12N2S4
SMILES S=C(SSC(=S)N(C)C)N(C)C
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1/C6H12N2S4/c1-7(2)5(9)11-12-6(10)8(3)4/h1-4H3
Structure diagram/image available? Yes
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 240.43
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) N1,N1,N3,N3-tetramethyl-2-dithioperoxy-1,3-dithiodicarbonic diamide
IUPAC name tetramethylthiuram disulfide
CAS name tetramethylthioperoxydicarbonic diamide
Other status information PIC Annex III (some formulations)
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) M3
Physical state White to yellow crystalline powder
Related substances & organisms

Can be a metabolite of:
Parent Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 91/414 relevancy
ziram Soil   0.400   Major fraction, Relvant

Formulations:
Property Value
Example manufacturers of products using this active
  • Agrichem
  • Chemtura
  • Unicrop
  • AgroCare
Example products using this active
  • Thiraflo
  • Thianosan
  • Greenthionock
  • Basultra
UK LERAP status None (may vary with mixtures)
Formulation and application details Often supplied as a flowable concentrate for use as a seed treatment.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for thiram

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 16.5 A5 Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 13000 A5 - Ethyl acetate -
69700 A5 - Acetone -
93 A5 - Hexane -
8300 A5 - Xylene -
Melting point (oC) 145 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling A5 -
Degradation point (oC) - - -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 5.37 X 1001 Calculated -
Log P 1.73 A5 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.36 A5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC 8.19 A5 - -
Note: Weak acid
Vapour pressure at 25oC (mPa) 2.3 A5 Intermediate state
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 3.30 X 10-02 A5 Non-volatile
Henry's law constant at 20oC (dimensionless) 3.30 X 10-07 K3 Moderately volatile
GUS leaching potential index 0.02 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Value 2.69 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Medium
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 Neutral solution: 214nm = 21884, 278nm = 11342 A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 15.2 G4 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 4.6 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) 15 G4 Non-persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 15.3 A5 -
DT90 (field) - - -
Note Other studies: lab studies DT50 ~2days, field studies DT50 range 14-65 days (R3)
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 0.4 A5 Fast
Note Data for pH 5, 25 degC
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value 3.5 A5 Non-persistent
Note pH sensitive: DT50 68.5 days at pH 5, 6.9 hours at pH 9, all at 25 degC
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 1.6 A5 Fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) 1.6 A5 Moderately fast

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Linear Kd - - -
Koc -
Notes and range -
Freundlich Kf 108 A5 Non-mobile
Kfoc 9629
1/n 1.104
Notes and range EU dossier Kf range 54.1-263.1 mL/g, Kfoc range 2245-24526 mL/g, 1/n range 1.036-1.149, Soils=4
pH sensitivity No

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 91/414 relevancy
N,N dimethyl carbamosulfonic acid Soil   0.102   Major fraction, Relevant


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for thiram

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor BCF 3.9 R4 (whole body) Low potential
CT50 (days) Not available -
Bioaccumulation potential - Calculated Low
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 1800 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 1.5 L2 Rat, 2 year High
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) > 2000 A5 Anas platyrhynchos Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) > 947 mg kg bw-1 day-1 A4 unknown species -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.046 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.012 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 0.011 A5 Daphnia magna High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.008 A5 Daphnia magna -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.0033 F3 Americamysis bahia High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 1.6 F3 Lemna gibba, 7 day Moderate
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 0.065 A5 Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees - Acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) > 100 A5 Oral Moderate
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 540 A5 Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 Harmless Dose: 3200 g ha-1
AA2 Aphidius rhopalosiphi
Harmless
% Effect 0 Mortality
Dose: 3kg product ha-1
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi
Harmless
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 Harmful Dose: 960 g ha-1
AA3 Typhlodromus pyri
Harmful
% Effect 29.9 Total effect
Dose: 2.4 kg ha-1 x 4 apps, field tests
A5 Typhlodromus pyri
Harmless
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5
Dose: 24 kg ha-1, 90 days
-
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 0.01 A5 Aquatic invertebrates and algae -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for thiram

General:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 1800 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 2000 A5 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 3.46 A5 Rat -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.01 A5 Dog, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.6 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.02 A5 Dog, SF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 10 A5 -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public -
Occupational -
Examples of European MRLs (mg kg-1) Value -
Note For the EU pesticides database click here
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Eye irritant

-

General human health issues High doses may cause hyperactivity, ataxia, dyspnea, and convulsions

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data

Handling issues:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
General Not explosive
IMDG Transport Code is usually 9
CLP classification 2013 -
EC Risk Classification Xn - Harmful: R20/22, R43, R48/22
Xi - Irritant: R36/38
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification S2, S26, S36/37, S60, S61
WHO Classification II - Moderately hazardous
US EPA Classification (formulation) III - Caution - Slightly toxic
UN Number Variable with product, usually 3077or 3082
Waste disposal & packaging Packaging Group III (minor danger)


TRANSLATIONS

for thiram

Language Name
English thiram
French thirame
German Thiram
Danish thiram
Italian tiram
Spanish tiram
Greek thiram
Slovenian tiram
Polish tiram
Swedish -
Hungarian thiram
Dutch thiram

Record last updated: Friday 01 August 2014
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk