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** zirame ** carbazinc ** methyl zimate ** zirthane ** DADZ ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home


Ziram is a fungicide that currently has approval for use in the EU. It has a low aqueous solubility, is quite volatile and has a plow potential for leaching to groundwater. It is not generally persistent in soil or water systems. Ziram is moderately toxic to mammals and is also considered to be mutagenic and a recognised irritant. It is highly toxic to birds, fish and aquatic invertebrates and moderately toxic to algae, honeybees and earthworms.

for ziram

Description: A broad spectrum fungicide to control common fungal diseases. Also used as a bird and animal repellent.

Example pests controlled: Anthracnose; Scab; Bitter rot; Black spot; Downey mildew; Leaf blight; Peach leaf curl; Powdery mildew; Storage rot

Example applications: Almonds; Pecans; Cherries; Apples; Pears; Peaches; Grapes; Tomatoes; Blueberries; Nectarines

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 1960, USA

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Belgium
Date inclusion expires 30/04/2017

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries:





























Also used in: Australia

General status:
Pesticide type Fungicide, Repellent
Substance group Carbamate
Minimum active substance purity 950 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - arsenic 250mg/kg
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Contact action with protective properties. Multi-site activity.
CAS RN 137-30-4
EC number 205-288-3
CIPAC number 31
US EPA chemical code 034805
Chiral molecule No
Chemical formula C6H12N2S4Zn
SMILES [Zn+2].S=C([S-])N(C)C.[S-]C(=S)N(C)C
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) FNLPVVKNKZFOCR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/2C3H7NS2.Zn/c2*1-4(2)3(5)6;/h2*1-2H3,(H,5,6);/q;;+2/p-2
Structure diagram/image available? Yes
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 305.84
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) zinc bis(dimethyldithiocarbamate)
IUPAC name zinc bis(dimethyldithiocarbamate)
CAS name (T-4)-bis(dimethylcarbamodithioato-kS,kS')zinc
Other status information -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) M3
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state White powder
Related substances & organisms -

Property Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Unicrop
  • AgroCare
  • FCC
  • Bayer CropScience
  • Farmoplant
Example products using this active
  • Thionic
  • Ziram Granuflo
  • Tricarbamix
  • Triscabol
  • Zirex
  • Carbazinc
UK LERAP status None
Formulation and application details Available in a range of formulations including wettable powders, water dispersible granules and liquids.


for ziram

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 0.967 A5 Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 1010 A5 - Ethyl acetate -
2300 A5 - Acetone -
110 A5 - Methanol -
900 A5 - Xylene -
Melting point (oC) 251 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) - - -
Degradation point (oC) - - -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 4.47 X 1001 Calculated -
Log P 1.65 A5 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.71 A5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC - - -
Vapour pressure at 25oC (mPa) 1.8 X 10-02 A5 Volatile
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 5.7 X 10-03 A5 Non-volatile
Henry's law constant at 20oC (dimensionless) 2.3 X 10-06 A5 Moderately volatile
GUS leaching potential index -0.68 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Value 1.98 X 10-07 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Medium
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 Neutral solution: 251nm - 39989, 270nm = 31586; [Acidic solution: Maxima below UV cut-off point; [Basic solution: 251nm = 52739 A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 30 G4 Moderately persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 0.05 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) 6.3 A5 Non-persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 2.8 A5 -
DT90 (field) - - -
Note EU dossier gives limited data; Other sources: DT50 30 days (DW4)
Plant matrix DT50 (days) Value 9.9 R3 -
Note Apricot, fruit matrix
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 0.3 A5 Fast
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value 0.7 A5 Non-persistent
Note pH sensitive: DT50 10.4 minutes at pH 4, 6.3 days at pH 9, all at 25 degC
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 0.25 A5 Fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) 0.25 A5 Fast

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Linear Kd - - -
Koc -
Notes and range -
Freundlich Kf 21.6 A5 Slightly mobile
Kfoc 3007
1/n 0.708
Notes and range EU dossier Kf range 2.9-68.1 mL/g, Kfoc range 314-12010 mL/g, 1/n range 0.343-0.948, Soils=8
pH sensitivity No

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 91/414 relevancy
thiram (Ref: ENT 987) Soil   0.400   Major fraction, Relvant

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
N,N-dimethylthioformamide - Water (Photolysis) - -
dithiocarbamic acid - Animal - -
1,1-dimethylurea - Soil (Aerobic) - -
Dimethyldithiocarbamic acid DDC Water 0.750 -
N,N-dimethylformamide - Water (Photolysis) - -


for ziram

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 470 J4 Threshold for concern
CT50 (days) Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 267 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) - - -
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 97 A5 Colinus virginianus High
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) > 5200 mg kg feed-1 A5 Anas platyrhynchos -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.00097 A5 Lepomis macrochirus High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.189 A5 Lepomis macrochirus Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 0.048 A5 Daphnia magna High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.01 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) 0.242 A5 Chironomus riparius, emergence Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) - - -
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 0.066 A5 Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) > 100 A5 Low
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 140 A5 Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect 0.2 Reproduction
Dose: 6.08 kg ha-1
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi, adult
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect 45.8 Total effect
Dose: 2.28 kg ha-1 x 4apps Field test
A5 Typhlodromus pyri
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: NOEC 40 kg WG 76% /ha
Carbon mineralisation: NOEC 40 kg WG 76% /ha
- -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 0.01 A5 Aquatic arthropods and algae as the thiram metabolite -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


for ziram

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 267 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 2000 A5 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 0.06 A5 Rat -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.006 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.08 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.015 A5 Rat, SF=200 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 5.0-30.0 A5 concentration dependant -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 List II - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public Low risk to bystanders
Occupational Acceptable risks for operators and other workers
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant



Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant


General human health issues IARC Group 3 carcinogen; USEPA - some evidence to suggest possible human carcinogen
Inhibits alcohol metabolism and may be goitrogenic
Thyroid toxicant

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
General Not explosive but may form explosive dust-air mixtures
IMDG Transport Code is usually 6.1
CLP classification 2013 Health: H302, H317, H318, H330, H335, H373
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification T+ - Very toxic: R26
Xn - Harmful: R22, R41, R43, R48/22
Xi - Irritant: R37
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification S1/2, S22, S26, S28, S36/37/39, S45, S60, S61
WHO Classification II - Moderately hazardous
US EPA Classification (formulation) III - Caution - Slightly toxic
UN Number Usually 2811
Waste disposal & packaging Packaging Group II (medium danger)


for ziram

Language Name
English ziram
French zirame
German Ziram
Danish ziram
Italian ziram
Spanish ziram
Greek ziram
Slovenian ciram
Polish ziram
Swedish ziram
Hungarian ziram
Dutch ziram

Record last updated: Monday 17 October 2016