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Acifluorfen (Ref: RH 5781)
Last updated: 16/12/2020
(Also known as: acifluorofen; acifluorfen metabolite; lactofen metabolite; PPG 847; carbofluorfen)

SUMMARY
Acifluorfen is a post-emergence herbicide, usually used as the sodium salt. It is highly soluble in water, with a low vapour pressure and may be moderately persistent in soils and water depending upon conditions. Based on its chemical properties it has a high potential for leaching to groundwater. It has a low to moderate toxicity to most biodiversity. It is not highly toxic to human but is known to be a skin and eye irritant.
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
Post emergence herbicide, usually used as the sodium salt; particularly effective against broad-leaved weeds and grasses. Also a pesticide transformation product.
Example pests controlled
Carpetweed; Balloonvine; Wild buckwheat; Cocklebur; Ladysthumb; Lambsquarters; Copperleaf; Morning glory; Moonflower; Nightshade; Pigweed; Foxtails
Example applications
Soybean; Peanuts; Rice
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
1980, USA
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Expired
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Not applicable
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicable
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
None
Chemical formula
C₁₄H₇ClF₃NO₅
Canonical SMILES
C1=CC(=C(C=C1C(F)(F)F)Cl)OC2=CC(=C(C=C2)[N+](=O)[O-])C(=O)O
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
NUFNQYOELLVIPL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C14H7ClF3NO5/c15-10-5-7(14(16,17)18)1-4-12(10)24-8-2-3-11(19(22)23)9(6-8)13(20)21/h1-6H,(H,20,21)
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
acifluorfen -
General status
Pesticide type
Herbicide, Metabolite
Metabolite Type
Soil
Substance group
Nitrophenyl
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Contact action. Inhibition of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO).
CAS RN
50594-66-6
EC number
256-634-5
CIPAC number
497
US EPA chemical code
-
PubChem CID
44073
Molecular mass
361.66
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoic acid
IUPAC name
5-(2-chloro-α,α,α-trifluoro-p-tolyloxy)-2-nitrobenzoic acid
CAS name
5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoic acid
Other status information
Chemical subject to PIC regulations; Potential groundwater pollutant
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
E
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
14
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
Off-white coloured solid
Can be a metabolite of:
Parent
Formation medium
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
1107/2009 relevancy
fluoroglycofen Soil - -
lactofen Soil - -
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Blazer
  • Tackle
Example products using this active
  • Rohm and Haas
  • United Phosphorus
Formulation and application details
-
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
250000
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
50000
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Acetone
-
1000
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
n-Hexane
-
Melting point (°C)
155
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
235
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Flashpoint (°C)
Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
1.51 X 1001 Calculated -
Log P
1.18
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
- - -
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
3.86
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Weak acid
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
0.133
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
54
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Other sources: DT₅₀ 108 (silt loam) - 200 (clay) days (R3)
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
4
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately fast
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
Stable
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Stable
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
G2 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Moderately mobile
Koc
113
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
13.2
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Moderately mobile
Kfoc
160
1/n
1.05
Notes and range
Literature data: Kf range 0.57-43.11 mL g⁻¹, Kfoc range 65.3-291.3 mL.g, 1/n range 0.952-1.190, Soils=5
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
3.11 Calculated High leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
3.53 X 10-01 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Medium Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Moderately mobile Calculated -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
Low risk
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Based on LogP < 3
Low risk
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1370
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
2821
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Anas platyrhynchos
Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
54
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
28
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 100
G2 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Low
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 1800
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Eisenia foetida as sodium salt
Low
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1370
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
2000
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rabbit
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
6.9
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat 4 hr
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.0125
G2 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
European MRLs
EU MRL pesticide database 
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
?Possibly, status not identified
A3 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
?Possibly, status not identified
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Slightly toxic
Liver, heart, and kidney toxicant at high doses
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H302, H315, H318
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Xn - Harmful: R22
Xi - Irritant: R38-41
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50-R53
EC Safety Classification
S2, S39, S24, S60, S61
WHO Classification
II (Moderately hazardous)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
acifluorfen
French
-
German
-
Danish
acifluorfen
Italian
-
Spanish
acifluorfen
Greek
-
Polish
acifluorfen
Swedish
-
Hungarian
acifluorfen
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 16/12/2020
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242