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Lincomycin
Last updated: 21/04/2021
(Also known as: lincomycine; cillimycin; LCM)

GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A drug used to treat bacterial infections, skin infections, wound infections, bone infections, pneumonia, dental (tooth) infections and other infections.
Availability status
-
Introduction & key dates
-
Examples of species treated
Dogs, Cats, Pigs, Poultry, Cattle, Bees
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₁₈H₃₄N₂O₆S
Canonical SMILES
CCCC1CC(N(C1)C)C(=O)NC(C2C(C(C(C(O2)SC)O)O)O)C(C)O
Isomeric SMILES
CCC[C@@H]1C[C@H](N(C1)C)C(=O)N[C@H](C2[C@@H]([C@@H]([C@H]([C@H](O2)SC)O)O)O)C(C)O
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
OJMMVQQUTAEWLP-ZUWRKQLMSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C18H34N2O6S/c1-5-6-10-7-11(20(3)8-10)17(25)19-12(9(2)21)16-14(23)13(22)15(24)18(26-16)27-4/h9-16,18,21-24H,5-8H2,1-4H3,(H,19,25)/t9?,10-,11+,12+,13+,14-,15-,16+,18-/m1/s1
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Veterinary substance type
Antibiotic, Antibacterial, Antimicrobial, Medicinal drug
Substance groups
Lincosamide
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Natural
Mode of action
It inhibits bacteria by suppressing protein synthesis and growth.
Molecular targets
[50S ribosomal protein L10, antagonist]
CAS RN
154-21-2
EC number
205-824-6
CIPAC number
-
US EPA chemical code
-
PubChem CID
-
ATCvet Code
QJ01FF02
Therapeutic Class
Antiinfectants for system use: Antibacterials for systemic use
Controlled Drug?
No
Regulation 37/2010 MRL Classification
Allowed substance (Table 1: All food producing species)
Molecular mass
406.54
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
(2S,4R)-N-[(1R,2R)-2-hydroxy-1-[(2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(methylsulfanyl)oxan-2-yl]propyl]-1-methyl-4-propylpyrrolidine-2-carboxamide
CAS name
-
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Physical state
White crystalline powder
Related substances & organisms
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Authorisation Route
UK Legal Class
Example products using this active
Lincocin Forte S Intramammary Solution Pfizer Ltd UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Lincocin premix 44 g/kg for Medicated Feed Pfizer Ltd UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Lincoject 10 %w/v Solution for Injection Norbrook Labs UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Linco-Spectin 100 Soluble powder Pfizer Ltd UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Formulation and application details
Available in a variety of formulations including medicated feeds, intramammary solutions, solutions for injection and soluble powders
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
927
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
295
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
as the hydrochloride
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
1.95 X 1000 Calculated -
Log P
0.29
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Low
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
- - -
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
12.9
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
2.46 X 10-14
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Refractive Index
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
- - -
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
Note
-
Manure DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Mobile
Koc
59
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
- - -
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
- - -
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
lincomycin sulfoxide - Mammals - -
N-desmethyl-lincomycin sulfoxide - Mammals - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 4000
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat as the hydrochloride
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
> 1000
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Eisenia foetida
Low
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 980
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Lepomis macrochirus as the hydrochloride
Low
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
379.4
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Low
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 4000
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat as the hydrochloride
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
- - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Subcutaneous LD₅₀ = 9778 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Intramuscular LD₅₀ = 0.2 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rabbit
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
The parent drug and metabolites are excreted mainly in the urine, bile and faeces. Distributed in milk.
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
No data found
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E2 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
2 = Mixed/ambiguous results
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found No data found
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
May cause diarrhea, vomiting and colitis
May cause hypotension and, albeit rarely, cardiac arrest
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
-
WHO Classification
None - not a ppp
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
lincomycin
French
lincomycine
German
-
Danish
-
Italian
-
Spanish
lincomicina
Greek
-
Polish
-
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 21/04/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242