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Monensin
Last updated: 21/04/2021
(Also known as: monensic acid)

Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
 
Ecotoxicity
Moderate alert:
Fish acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Earthworms chronic ecotoxicity: Moderate
Warning:
Significant data are missing
Human health
Moderate alert:
Mammals acute toxicity: Moderate
Warning:
Significant data are missing
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A broad spectrum antibotic and coccidiostat drug also used as a growth promotor
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
1979, first synthesised
Examples of species treated
Poultry, Cattle
Chemical structure
Isomerism
No data
Chemical formula
C₃₆H₆₂O₁₁
Canonical SMILES
CCC1(CCC(O1)C2(CCC3(O2)CC(C(C(O3)C(C)C(C(C)C(=O)O)OC)C)O)C)C4C(CC(O4)C5C(CC(C(O5)(CO)O)C)C)C
Isomeric SMILES
CC[C@]1(CC[C@@H](O1)[C@]2(CC[C@@]3(O2)C[C@@H]([C@H]([C@H](O3)[C@H](C)[C@@H]([C@@H](C)C(=O)O)OC)C)O)C)[C@@H]4[C@@H](C[C@H](O4)[C@@H]5[C@H](C[C@H]([C@@](O5)(CO)O)C)C)C
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
GAOZTHIDHYLHMS-GDMSFIFLSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C36H62O11/c1-10-34(31-20(3)16-26(43-31)28-19(2)15-21(4)36(41,18-37)46-28)12-11-27(44-34)33(8)13-14-35(47-33)17-25(38)22(5)30(45-35)23(6)29(42-9)24(7)32(39)40/h19-31,37-38,41H,10-18H2,1-9H3,(H,39,40)/t19-,20+,21+,22+,23+,24+,25-,26-,27+,28-,29-,30-,31-,33+,34-,35+,36-/m0/s1
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Veterinary substance type
Antibiotic, Antibacterial, Coccidiostat, Feed additive, Growth promotor
Substance groups
Polyether (ionophore)
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Natural
Mode of action
A protein transport inhibitor
Molecular targets
-
CAS RN
17090-79-8
EC number
241-154-0
CIPAC number
-
US EPA chemical code
-
PubChem CID
-
ATCvet Code
QP51AH03
Therapeutic Class
Antiparasitic products, insecticides & repellents: Antiprotozoals
Controlled Drug?
No
Regulation 37/2010 MRL Classification
Allowed substance (Table 1: Bovine)
Molecular mass
670.87
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
4-[2-[5-ethyl-5-[5-[6-hydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-3,5-dimethyl-oxan-2-yl]-3-methyl-oxolan-2-yl]oxolan-2-yl]- 9-hydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-1,6-dioxasp iro[4.5]dec-7-yl]-3-methoxy-2-methyl-pentanoic acid
CAS name
-
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Physical state
White crystalline solid
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Authorisation Route
UK Legal Class
Example products using this active
Coxidin Huvepharma NV Belgium Annex 1 Reg 109/2007; Annex 2 Reg 156/2008; Annex 3 Reg 1095/2008 Not applicable
Elancoban G200 & G100 Eli Lilly & Co Annex 1 Reg 1356/2004; Annex 2 & 4 Reg 108/2007; Annex 3 Reg 1096/2008 Not applicable
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as a premix or feed additive
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
104
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
2.69 X 1005 Calculated -
Log P
5.43
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
High
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
- - -
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
4.27 X 10-18
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Refractive Index
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
7.4
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
Note
General literature: 1ppm soil conc, only trace remained after 20 days (R4)
Manure DT₅₀ (days)
5.8
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Soil & cattle manure
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
- - -
Koc
-
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
- - -
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
- - -
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Known soil and groundwater metabolites

None

Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
monensin methyl ester MME - - -
monensin decyl ester MDE - - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
100
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
10
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Moderate
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
9
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
10.7
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
100
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
- - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Intraperitoneal LD₅₀ = 15 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
Excreted rapidly in the faeces and urine
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E2 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
2 = Mixed/ambiguous results
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
No data found
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
May cause pulmonary edema
May cause gastroinstinal and renal function problems
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke & irritating fumes
CLP classification 2013
-
WHO Classification
None - not a ppp
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
monensin
French
-
German
-
Danish
-
Italian
-
Spanish
monensina
Greek
-
Polish
-
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 21/04/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242