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Dieldrin (Ref: ENT 16225 )
Last updated: 12/01/2021
(Also known as: dieldrex; dieldrite; SD 3417; dieldrine)

SUMMARY
Dieldrin is an obsolete insecticide that does not have regulatory approval for use in the EU. It has a low aqueous solubility and is volatile. Based on its chemical properties, it is not expected to leach to groundwater. Its data suggests it is very persistent in soils and is not-mobile. It is highly toxic to mammals with a high potential for bioaccumulation. It is a neurotoxin and probably a mutagen. Dieldrin has a moderate toxicity to birds, aquatic invertebrates and algae but considered to be more toxic to fish and honeybees.
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An obsolete cyclodiene insecticide. Can also be a pesticide transformation product
Example pests controlled
Termites; Locusts; Wood eating insects; Fabric eating insects
Example applications
Wood; Fabrics; Public health situations
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Obsolete; Banned
Introduction & key dates
1949, first reported
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Not applicable
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Not applicable
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Not applicable
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicable
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
A chiral molecule
Chemical formula
C₁₂H₈Cl₆O
Canonical SMILES
C1C2C3C(C1C4C2O4)C5(C(=C(C3(C5(Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl
Isomeric SMILES
C1[C@@H]2[C@H]3[C@@H]([C@H]1[C@H]4[C@@H]2O4)[C@]5(C(=C([C@@]3(C5(Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
DFBKLUNHFCTMDC-PICURKEMSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C12H8Cl6O/c13-8-9(14)11(16)5-3-1-2(6-7(3)19-6)4(5)10(8,15)12(11,17)18/h2-7H,1H2/t2-,3+,4?,5?,6?,7?,10-,11-/m1/s1
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
dieldrin Unstated isomer
General status
Pesticide type
Insecticide, Metabolite
Metabolite Type
Soil
Substance group
Chlorinated hydrocarbon
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Central nervous system stimulant. GABA-gated chloride channel antagonist. Contact and stomach action
CAS RN
60-57-1
EC number
200-484-5
CIPAC number
16
US EPA chemical code
045001
PubChem CID
969491
Molecular mass
380.91
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
(1aR,2R,2aS,3S,6R,6aR,7S,7aS)-3,4,5,6,9,9-hexachloro-1a,2,2a,3,6,6a,7,7a-octahydro-2,7:3,6-dimethanonaphth[2,3-b]oxirene
IUPAC name
(1R,4S,4aS,5R,6R,7S,8S,8aR)-1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-6,7-epoxy-1,4:5,8-dimethanonaphthalene
CAS name
(1aR,2R,2aS,3S,6R,6aR,7S,7aS)-rel-3,4,5,6,9,9-hexachloro-1a,2,2a,3,6,6a,7,7a-octahydro-2,7:3,6-dimethanonaphth(2,3-b)oxirene
Other status information
WFD priority substance; Subject to PIC regulations; POP; LRTAP Annex I; PAN Dirty Dozen; OSPAR soc; Marine Pollutant; Rotterdam Convention (Class O)
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
EU Directive 2008/105/EC EQS sum of all cyclodiene pesticides in: Inland surface waters as annual average: 0.01 µg l⁻¹; Other surface waters; 0.005 µg l⁻¹
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
2A
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
Many recorded cases, Agriotes lineatus, Agriotes obscurus, Anopheles sacharovi, Blattella germanica, Chironomus zealandicus, Epitrix cucumeris, Plusia gamma
Physical state
White to light brown crystals
Can be a metabolite of:
Parent
Formation medium
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
1107/2009 relevancy
aldrin Soil - Not assessed under 91/414 or 1107/2009
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Octalox
  • Panoram D-31
  • Alvit
  • Dieldrex
Example products using this active
  • Shell Chemical Co.
  • Hyman
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied in a variety of formulations including wettable powders, granules and emulsifiable concentrates
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
0.14
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
177
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
385
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
5.01 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P
3.7
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
High
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.75
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
Not applicable
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
No dissociation
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
0.024
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
6.50 X 10-02
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Non-volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
1400
M4 M = GLEAMS Model database (Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems) (click here )
4 = Verified data
Very persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
2000
A3 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Very persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Best available data, PIC DGD DT₅₀ 5 years; Other sources: DT₅₀ 800-900 days (R3)
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
6.8
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Note
Published literature RL₅₀ range 6.5-7.0 days, 2 field crops, various matrices, n=2
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
6.0
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Note
Published literature RL₅₀ range 2.0-10.0 days, 6 field crops, various matrices, n=8
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
H3 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-mobile
Koc
12000
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
1563
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
-
Kfoc
-
1/n
0.95
Notes and range
Mean of 3 soils. Organic Kf=4246; Sandy loam Kf=338; Sand Kf=106
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
-0.26 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
5.35 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note
Estimated concentrations of chemicals with Koc values greater than 9995 ml g⁻¹ are beyond the scope of the regression data used in SCI-GROW development. If there are concerns for such chemicals, a higher tier groundwater exposure assessment should be considered, regardless of the concentration returned by SCI-GROW
Potential for particle bound transport index
High Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Non-mobile Calculated -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
35000
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
(whole body Literature values Log BCF range 1.4-4.1 (
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
))
High potential
CT₅₀ (days)
1 -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
46
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
High
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
-
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Rat
-
(ppm diet)
0.5 -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
153
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Anas platyrhynchos
Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.0012
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Oncorhynchus mykiss
High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.25
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.1
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Chlorella pyrenoidosa
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
0.32
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
High
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
0.029
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Trigona spinipes
High
Mode of exposure
Contact
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
0.0036
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Megachile rotundata
High
Mode of exposure
Contact
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
46
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
High
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
60
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.0001
F5 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
JMPR CODEX
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.003
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
List II - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
Can be absorbed into the body via dermal and inhalation routes
European MRLs
EU MRL pesticide database 
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
0.03
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
PIC DGD - WHO recommendation max limit 0.03 µg l⁻¹
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
Yes, known to cause a problem
A3 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E1 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
1 = Positive
?Possibly, status not identified
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
Yes, known to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found No data found No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
No data found No data found  
General human health issues
Extremely hazardous
Exposure can lead to convulsions
IARC Group 3 carcinogen
Endocrine issues - Competitive binding to androgen receptors, estrogenic effect
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H301, H310, H351, H372
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Carcinogen category 3: R40
T+ - Very toxic: R27
T - Toxic: R25, R48/25
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S1/2, S22, S36/37, S45, S60, S61
WHO Classification
Ib (Highly hazardous / Highly hazardous)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
dieldrin
French
dieldrine
German
Dieldrin
Danish
dieldrin
Italian
dieldrin
Spanish
dieldrin
Greek
dieldrin
Polish
dieldryna
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
dieldrine

Record last updated: 12/01/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242