AERU AGRICULTURE & ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH UNIT
 

Application of environmental assessment techniques

A key activity of AERU is undertaking environmental assessments of agricultural activities and land use. This often involves utilising new techniques that have been developed by AERU as well as established techniques such as LCA. The scale of the environmental assessments we undertake ranges from specific fields or activities on farms to regions, countries or the whole of Europe.

Skills and services encompass the following:

  • Life Cycle Assessment (LCA): application of the LCA methodology and techniques (to ISO 14001 standards) and including carbon and water footprints. AERU have carried out a number of projects that have adopted elements of a LCA approach, and have developed an extensive database of relevant emission factors etc, that makes us ideally placed to carry out this type of work quickly and economically.
  • Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA): AERU have used a risk based approach in much of our work (especially the use of pesticides), so as to ensure that our assessment of impacts (or potential impacts) takes into account site specific factors, such as whether sensitive environments are present in the location that a potentially damaging process is occurring.
  • Modelling: AERU has been at the forefront of agri-environmental modelling work for more than two decades, and have developed its own and use pre-existing systems to advance our understanding of a wide range of issues, including ecosystem services; agro-ecological interactions and biodiversity; greenhouse gas emissions; carbon sequestration; energy and nutrient use; pesticide fate and transport.
  • Sustainability assessment: combining environmental assessment techniques with socio-economic assessment to provide a more holistic perspective.
  • Benchmarking: AERU’s core skills have been used extensively both in the definition of current agri-environmental best practice, and to allow agricultural and horticultural businesses get a handle on their agri-environmental performance.
  • Geographical Information Systems (GIS): AERU have undertaken several projects that have utilised GIS tools to assess and communicate environmental impacts. We have skills and experience of using both ArcGIS and QGIS.

Projects

Publications

  • Catulli, M., Reed, N., Tzilivakis, J. & Green, A. (2020). Extending the life of infant mobility products: Implementing a Product Service System. Report for Defra project ABR112 (Project EV0534)/ Re-engineering Business for Sustainability.
  • Tzilivakis, J., Green, A. & Catulli, M. (2020). Life Cycle Assessment: Conventional versus Product Service System approach to the provision of a child car seat (infant carrier): Re-Engineering Business for Sustainability (REBUS). Report for Defra project ABR112 (Project EV0534).
  • Catulli, M., Sopjani, L., Reed, N., Tzilivakis, J. & Green, A. (2020). A socio-technical experiment with a resource efficient product service system. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 199:105364. DOI.
  • Warner, D.J., Tzilivakis, J., Green, A. and Lewis, K.A. (2020). Establishing a field-based evidence base for the impact of agri-environment options on soil carbon and climate change mitigation – phase 1. Final Report. Work package number: ECM50416. Evidence Programme Reference number: RP04176. Natural England.
  • Warner, D.J., Tzilivakis, J., Green, A. and Lewis, K.A. (2020). Establishing a field-based evidence base for the impact of agri-environment options on soil carbon and climate change mitigation – phase 2. Final Report. Work package number: ECM50416. Evidence Programme Reference number: RP04176. Natural England.
  • Warner, D.J., Tzilivakis, J., Green, A., Charlton, D. & Lewis, K.A. (2019). Determining the climate change mitigation potential of Countryside Stewardship. World Journal of Agriculture and Soil Science Change1(2), DOI
  • Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D., Green, A. & Lewis, K. (2019). Spatial analysis of the benefits and burdens of Ecological Focus Areas for water-related ecosystem services vulnerable to climate change in Europe. Mitig. Adapt. Strateg. Glob. Change24(2): 205-233. DOI
  • Warner, D., Tzilivakis, J., Green, A. and Lewis, K. (2017) Environmental impact assessment of sugar beet and sugar cane grown in the United States. Confidential report to Western Sugar Ltd
  • Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D.J., Green, A. & Lewis, K.A. (2017). Spatial and temporal variability of greenhouse gas emissions from rural development land use operations. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change22(3): 447-467. DOI
  • Warner, D., Tzilivakis, J., Green, A. & Lewis, K. (2017). Ecological Focus Areas and beneficial insect (Coleoptera: Carabidae) conservation for pest control: habitat suitability and farm specific factors. In: G. Begg, F. Bianchi, N. Birch, B. Gerowitt, J. Holland, D. Lupi, C. Moonen, M. Ramsden & P. van Rijn (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th IOBC-WPRS Working Group meeting on Landscape Management for Functional Biodiversity (IOBC-WPRS Bulletin vol. 122). Dundee (Scotland, UK), 29-31 March, 6-10.
  • Angileri, V., Fasbender, D., Van Eupen, C., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D., Devos, W., Loudjani, P., Paracchini, M-L. and Terres, J-M. (2017). Using the Ecological Focus Area (EFA) calculator to assess the potential impact of EFA implementation on biodiversity and ecosystem services. European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC) Technical Report. DOI: 10.2788/20041.
  • Warner, D., Tzilivakis, J., Green, A. & Lewis, K. (2017). Prioritising agri-environment options for greenhouse gas mitigation. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management9(1): 104-122. DOI
  • Defra (2016) Developing farm performance assessment methodologies. Report for Work Package 1.1A, Defra SIP Project 1: Integrated Farm Management for Improved Economic, Environmental and Social Performance (LM0201). Undertaken by : NIAB, IBERS (Aberystwyth University), ADAS, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute (AFBI), Bangor University, Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland (BioSS), University of Bristol, University of Cambridge, Carbon Trust, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Duchy College, University of Exeter, Fera, Game and Wildlife Conservation Trust (GWCT), Glasgow Caledonian University, Harper Adams University, University of Hertfordshire, Linking Environment And Farming (LEAF), University of Leeds, Newcastle University, NIAB EMR, University of Nottingham, Organic Research Centre, University of Reading, Rothamsted Research, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB), Scotland’s Rural College (SRUC), Soil Association and Velcourt. [Link to report
  • Warner, D.J., Tzilivakis, J., Green, A. & Lewis, K.A. (2016). Rural Development Program measures on cultivated land in Europe to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions – regional “hotspots” and priority measures. Carbon Management7(3-4): 205-219. DOI
  • Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D., Green, A. & Lewis, K.A. (2015). Adapting to climate change: Assessing the vulnerability of ecosystem services in Europe in the context of rural development. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change20(4): 547-572. DOI
  • Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Green, A. & Warner, D.J. (2015). The potential of feed additives to improve the environmental impact of European livestock farming: A multi-issue analysis. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability13(1): 55-68.
  • Catulli, M., Lindley, J., Reed, N., Green, A., Kiri, S. P. & Hyseni, H. (2013). What is Mine is NOT Yours: Further Insight on what Access-Based Consumption says about Consumers. In: R.W. Belk, L. Price & L. Peñaloza (Eds.) Research in Consumer Behaviour: Volume 15 - Consumer Culture Theory. (pp. 185-208). Emerald Books, Bingley, UK.
  • Tzilivakis, J., Lewis, K.A., Green, A., Warner, D.J., Stedman, A. & Naseby, D. (2013). Review of substances/agents that have direct beneficial effect on the environment: Mode of action and assessment of efficacy. EFSA Supporting Publication 2013:EN-440. European Food Safety Authority, Parma, Italy.
  • Warner, D.J., Tzilivakis, J., Green, A., Slater, R.I.J. & Lewis, K.A. (2013). Measuring the Extent to Which Greenhouse Gas Emission Savings Achieved by Environmental Stewardship are Displaced On-farm - Natural England Report NECR121. Natural England, York, UK.
  • Warner, D.J., Davies, M., Hipps, N., Osborne, N., Tzilivakis, J. & Lewis, K.A. (2010). Greenhouse gas emissions and energy use in UK-grown short-day strawberry (Fragaria xananassa Duch) crops. Journal of Agricultural Science, 148(6): 667-681. DOI
  • Tzilivakis, J., Lewis, K.A., Green, A. & Warner, D.J. (2009) Assessment of Reduction in Environmental Burdens Through Targeted Measures Compared with Whole Farm Approaches in Cropping and Livestock Systems: Final Report for Defra Project IF0131. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra)
  • Warner, D.J. and Lewis, K.A. (2008) The impact on greenhouse gas emissions of the revised Action Programme for Nitrate Vulnerable Zones: Final Report for Project WT0757NVZ. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra).
  • Lewis K.A., Tzilivakis J, Green, A. and Warner, D.J. (2006) Horticulture and the environment in the Southern Region. Final report for the Environment Agency (Southern region).
  • Warner, D.J., Davies, M., Hipps, N., Osborne, N., Tzilivakis, J. & Lewis, K.A. (2005) Sustainability of UK Strawberry Crop. Final report for Defra project HH3606.
  • Tzilivakis, J., Jaggard, K., Lewis, K.A., May, M. & Warner, D.J. (2005). An assessment of the energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) production in the UK. Agricultural Systems 85, 101-119.
  • Tzilivakis, J., Jaggard, K., Lewis, K.A., May, M. & Warner, D.J. (2005). Environmental impact and economic assessment for UK sugar beet production systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 107, 341-358.
  • Tzilivakis, J., Lewis K.A. & Williamson, A.R. (2005). A prototype framework for assessing risks to soil functions. EIA Review 25, 181-195.
  • Jaggard, K., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D.J. & Lewis, K.A. (2004) Beet and the environment. British Sugar Beet Review 72(2), 34-37.
  • Tzilivakis, J., Turley, D.B., Ogilvy, S.E., Lewis, K.A. & Lawson, K. (2004). Assessing the environmental impact of crop protection strategies for integrated farming systems. Agronomie 24, 67-76.
  • Warner, D.J., Tzilivakis, J., Hipps, N., Davies, M., Osborne, N., & Lewis, K.A. (2003). Environmental impact assessment of the UK strawberry crop. Proceedings of the International Fertiliser Society and Dahlia Greidinger Symposium. Izmir, Turkey, 7 – 10 December 2003, pages 396 - 398.
  • Tzilivakis, J., Lewis K.A., Green, A., Warner, D.J. and Kerr, S. (2003) Investigation of Varietal Characteristics Required for Sustainable Agriculture. Final report for Defra project VS0128.
  • Tzilivakis, J., Lewis K.A., Green, A., Warner, D.J. and Calvert, A. (2002) Priorities for the Environmental Protection of Soil. R&D Project Record P5-055 for the Environment Agency.
  • Tzilivakis, J., Jaggard, K., Lewis, K.A., May, M. & Warner, D.J. (2002). Environmental assessment of sugar beet production. Proceedings of the 65th IIRB (International Institute for Beet Research) Congress, Brussels, February 13-14 2002.

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University of Hertfordshire, 2020.