Environmental management, farm assurance and ecolabelling

AERU's work started in the early 1990's exploring how environmental management systems could be implemented on farms with the flagship project Environmental Management for Agriculture (EMA). This evolved at the same time as the introduction of farm assurance schemes in the UK and the development of ecolabels for food (e.g. for carbon footprints). Since then, AERU have been involved in numerous projects to facilitate the adoption of environmental management systems on farms; understanding the environmental benefits of different farm assurance schemes; and how environmental data can be used within the context of farm assurance and ecolabeling schemes.



  • Rainford, J, Tzilivakis, J., Garthwaite, D., Jones, G. & Lewis, K.A. (2023). Finalising a Pesticide Load Indicator for the UK: Phase 4 Report. Prepared for the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), UK, for project PC0116, by FERA Science Ltd and the Agriculture and Environment Research Unit (AERU), University of Hertfordshire, UK. [Download].
  • Mondière, A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D.J., van der Werf, H.M.G., Farruggia, A., Glinec, O. & Corson, M.S (2022). An improved indicator framework to assess and optimise ecosystem services provided by permanent grasslands. Ecological Indicators, 146, 109765. DOI.
  • Lewis, K., Rainford, J., Tzilivakis, J. & Garthwaite, D. (2021). Application of the Danish Pesticide Load Indicator to UK arable agriculture. J Environ Qual.: 1-13. DOI.
  • Rainford, J., Garthwaite, D., Jones, G., Tzilivakis, J. & Lewis, K.A. (2020). Developing a UK Pesticide Load Indicator. Final report for a scoping project undertaken for Defra by FERA Science Limited and the Agriculture & Environment Research Unit at the University of Hertfordshire.
  • Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D.J. & Holland, J.M. (2019). Developing practical techniques for quantitative assessment of ecosystem services on farmland. Ecological Indicators, 106: 105514. DOI.
  • Tzilivakis, J., Green, A., Warner, D.J., McGeever,K. & Lewis, K.A. (2012). A framework for practical and effective eco-labelling of food products. Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, 3(1): 50-73. DOI. [Outstanding Paper Award Winner at the Literati Network Awards for Excellence 2013]
  • Tzilivakis, J., Lewis, K.A., Green, A., Warner, D.J., MacMillan, T & McGeevor, K. (2011). Effective approaches to environmental labelling of food products. Final Report for Defra Project FO0419. January 2011.
  • Lewis, K.A., Green, A., Tzilivakis, J. & Warner, D.J. (2010). The contribution of UK farm assurance schemes to environmental policy: Research Update Brief. University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK. [Download].
  • Lewis K.A., Tzilivakis J, Green, A., Warner, D.J. & Coles A.J. (2008) Farm Assurance Schemes – Can they improve farming standards? British Food Journal, 110(11): 1088-1105.
  • Tzilivakis, J., Lewis, K.A., Green, A. & Warner, D.J. (2005). Comparison of Assured Food Standards to Cross Compliance. Report prepared for Assured Food Standards by the Agriculture and Environment Research Unit (AERU) at the University of Hertfordshire (UH) in collaboration with TLR Ltd.
  • Tzilivakis, J. & Lewis, K.A. (2005). Harmonisation of the Assured Food Standards (AFS). Report prepared for Assured Food Standards by the Agriculture and Environment Research Unit (AERU) at the University of Hertfordshire (UH).
  • Lewis, K.A. & Green. A. (2004). Managing on-farm environmental impact using EMA. Proceedings of Crop Protection in Northern Britain. 24-25 February 2004, University of Dundee, Scotland, UK. Scottish Crop Research Institute, Invergowrie, Scotland, UK.
  • Lewis, K.A. & Tzilivakis, J. (2004). New initiatives for maintaining on-farm environmental protection. Aspects of Applied Biology, 72, 209-216.
  • Tzilivakis, J., Turley, D.B., Ogilvy, S.E., Lewis, K.A. & Lawson, K. (2004). Assessing the environmental impact of crop protection strategies for integrated farming systems. Agronomie, 24, 67-76.
  • Brown, C.D., Hart, A., Lewis, K.A. & Dubus, I.G. (2003). p-EMA (I): simulating the environmental fate of pesticides for a farm-level risk assessment system. Agronomie, 23: 67-74.
  • Hart, A., Brown, C.D., Lewis, K.A. & Tzilivakis, J. (2003). p-EMA (II): evaluating ecological risks of pesticides for a farm-level risk assessment system. Agronomie, 23: 75-84.
  • Lewis, K.A., Brown, C.D., Hart, A. & Tzilivakis, J. (2003). p-EMA (III): overview and application of a software system designed to assess the environmental risk of agricultural pesticides. Agronomie, 23: 85-96.
  • Lewis, K.A., Newbold, M.J. & Tzilivakis, J. (1999). Developing an emissions inventory from farm data. Journal of Environmental Management, 55: 183-197.
  • Lewis, K.A. & Bardon, K.S. (1998). A computer based informal environmental management system for agriculture. Journal of Environmental Modelling and Software, 13: 123-127.
  • Lewis, K.A. & Tzilivakis, J. (1998). Evaluating a technique used to measure environmental performance within agriculture - Case studies. Eco-management and Auditing, 5(3): 126-135.
  • Lewis, K.A. Newbold, M.J. & Broom, C.E. (1997). An eco-rating system for optimising pesticide use at farm level: Part 2 evaluation, examples and piloting. Journal of Agricultural Engineering, 68: 281-289.
  • Lewis, K.A., Newbold, M.J., Hall, A.M. & Broom, C.E. (1997). An eco-rating system for optimising pesticide use at farm level: Part 1 theory and development. Journal of Agricultural Engineering, 68: 275-280.
  • Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Skinner, J.A., Finch, J., Kaho, T., Newbold, M.J. & Bardon, K.S. (1997). Scoring and ranking farmland conservation activities to evaluate environmental performance and encourage sustainable farming. Sustainable Development, 5(2): 71-78.
  • Newbold, M.J., Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Finch, J., Kaho, T., Skinner, J.A. & Bardon, K.S. (1997). The options for informal environmental management: The agricultural industry highlighted. Eco-Management and Auditing, 4(1): 22-27.

University of Hertfordshire
University of Hertfordshire, 2023.